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2014 Powertrain Product Portfolio

Select below to explore the many engines and transmissions that we offer.

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The L20 4.8L provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L20 quiet and smooth. To further reduce wear, the pistons are coated with a polymer material that limits bore scuffing, or abrasion of the cylinder wall over time from the piston's up-down motion. The polymer coating also dampens noise generated by the piston's movement. The result for the customer is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 4.8L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. The high-performance cylinder heads support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The L20 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Vortec 4.8L V-8 (L20)

Vortec 4.8L V-8 (L20)

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Overview

The Vortec 4.8L V-8 (L20) is the entry-level V-8 engine. One of the enablers of the 4.8L's balance of performance and efficiency is great airflow throughout. The 4.8L is powerful and delivers exceptional refinement to go with great strength. Quiet features built into the engine are complemented by an improved engine cradle and mounting system. These help reduce vibrations transmitted through the chassis and into the passenger compartment.

Type: 4.8L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 4807cc (293 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 8.8:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves (2 valves per cylinder)
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Romulus, MI and Silao, Mexico
St Catherines, Ontario
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x Stroke: 96.01 x 83mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel type: Applications:
Regular unleaded Chevrolet Express ( Cutaway ) , GMC Savana ( Cutaway )
Regular unleaded and E85 Flex Fuel Chevrolet Silverado, Express ( Passenger, Cargo )
Regular unleaded and E85 Flex Fuel GMC Sierra, Savana ( Passenger, Cargo )
Maximum Engine Speed: 6000 RPM
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Express > 10,000 lbs 285 hp ( 213 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express < = 10,000 lbs 285 hp ( 213 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana > 10,000 lbs 285 hp ( 213 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana < = 10,000 lbs 285 hp ( 213 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Express > 10,000 lbs 295 lb-ft ( 400 Nm ) @ 4600 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express < = 10,000 lbs 295 lb-ft ( 400 Nm ) @ 4600 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana > 10,000 lbs 295 lb-ft ( 400 Nm ) @ 4600 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana < = 10,000 lbs 295 lb-ft ( 400 Nm ) @ 4600 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
MATERIALS
Block: Cast iron
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder Metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Powder metal
Additional features: Electronic throttle control
E85 Flex Fuel
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder block


The all-new Gen-V cylinder block shares two key design elements with GM’s original small-block V-8: a 90-degree cylinder angle and 4.400-inch bore centers. The bore and stroke dimensions are 3.92-inch (99.6 mm) bore x 3.62-inch (92 mm) stroke (262 cubic inches) for the 4.3L.

Compared to the Gen-IV engine, the Gen-V’s aluminum cylinder block casting is all-new, but based on the same basic architecture. It was refined and modified to accommodate the mounting of the engine-driven fuel pump and vacuum pump. It also incorporates new engine mount attachments, new knock sensor locations, improved sealing and oil-spray piston cooling.

Oiling System


The oiling system is revised and features a new, dual-pressure-control and variable-displacement vane pump with increased flow capacity. As with the Gen-III/Gen-IV engines, the oil pump is driven by the crankshaft. Variable displacement enables the pump to efficiently deliver oil pump flow as demanded. Dual pressure-control enables operation at a very efficient oil pressure at lower rpm coordinated with the Active Fuel Management and operation at a higher pressure at higher engine speeds providing a more robust lube system with aggressive engine operation.

All Gen-V engines are designed to be used with GM’s Dexos semi-synthetic motor oil. “Thinner” oil is used, too, which helps reduce friction to enhance efficiency. The 4.3L V-6 uses 5W30 oil, held in a six-quart aluminum oil pan.

Oil-Spray Piston Cooling


All Gen-V engines feature oil-spray piston cooling, in which eight oil-spraying jets in the engine block drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The oil spray reduces piston temperature, promoting extreme output and long-term durability. The extra layer of oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Rotating assembly and windage tray


Within the 4.3L's block is a durable rotating assembly that includes a steel crankshaft and 6.125-inch-long, powder-metal connecting rods, as well as high-strength, aluminum-alloy pistons. The connecting rods have a new profile that enhances strength.

The pistons are lightweight, which enhances high-rpm performance, as they enable the engine to rev quicker. They also have a unique head topography that is essential to the direct injection system. The “bowl” and shape of the top of the piston head is designed to promote thorough mixing of the air and fuel – a dished center section helps direct the fuel spray from the injector – to ensure complete combustion, which improves performance and efficiency, particularly on cold starts.

The crankshaft in the Gen-V small block is located with new nodular main bearing caps – a significant upgrade over more conventional grey iron main caps. Nodular caps are stronger and can better absorb vibrations and other harmonics to help produce smoother, quieter performance.

A redesigned windage tray is also used with the Gen-V engine, which features a new oil scraper design. This enhances performance and efficiency by improving oil flow control and bay-to-bay crankcase breathing. The cylinder block an main bearing caps maintain the optimal cranksase “windows” that were perfected on the Gen-IV engine.

PCV-Integrated Rocker Covers


One of the most distinctive features of the Gen V family is its domed rocker covers, which house a patent-pending, integrated positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system that enhances oil economy and oil life, while reducing oil consumption and contributing to low emissions. The rocker covers also hold the direct-mount ignition coils for the coil-near-plug ignition system. Between the individual coil packs, the domed sections of the covers contain baffles that separate oil and air from the crankcase gases – about three times the oil/air separation capability of previous engines.

Camshaft Design


Also rotating inside the engine block is a hydraulic roller-lifter camshaft. Compared to the Gen-IV small-block, the camshaft remains in the same position relative to the crankshaft and is used with a new rear cam bearing. The camshaft also features an all-new “trilobe” to drive the engine-mounted, high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection combustion system.

The camshaft specifications for the 4.3L include: 12.7/12.5mm (0.500/0.492-inch) intake/exhaust lift, 193/199-crank angle degrees intake/exhaust duration at 0.050-inch tappet lift and 113-degree cam angle lobe separation.

Dual-Equal Cam Phasing


All Gen V engines feature dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing), which works with Active Fuel Management to enhance fuel economy, while also maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions.

A vane-type phaser is installed on the front of the camshaft to change its angular orientation relative to the sprocket, thereby adjusting the timing of valve operation on the fly. It is a dual-equal cam phasing system that adjusts camshaft timing at the same rate for both intake and exhaust valves. The system allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

The vane phaser is actuated by hydraulic pressure and flow from engine oil, and managed by a solenoid that controls oil flow to the phaser.

Cylinder Head Design


The Gen-V small-block’s all-new cylinder head design builds on the excellent, racing-proven airflow attributes of previous small-block heads and matches it with an all-new direct-injection combustion system. It supports tremendous airflow at higher rpm for a broad horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

Compared to the Gen-IV cylinder head design, the Gen-V head features a smaller, 59.18cc combustion chamber on the 4.3L, which is designed to complement the volume of the piston’s dish. The smaller chamber size and dished pistons work together to produce an 11.0:1 compression ratio. The spark plug angle and depth have been modified to protrude farther into the chamber, placing the electrode closer to the center of the combustion to support the direct injection system.

In addition to the new combustion chamber design, the Gen-V head features large, straight and rectangular intake ports that feature a slight twist to enhance mixture motion. This is complemented by a reversal of the intake and exhaust valve positions as compared to the Gen-IV design. The exhaust port shapes are optimized for the new valve locations, with new port opening locations at the manifold face.

Large, lightweight intake and exhaust valves are used in the aluminum alloy heads, including 1.93-inch (49mm) intake and 1.56-inch (39.5mm) exhaust valves for the 4.3L

The lightweight valves enable the engine to rev quickly and capably to greater than 6,000 rpm. The valves are held at new, 12.6-degree intake/12.1-degree exhaust angles vs. the Gen-IV’s 15-degree angle. Additionally, the valves are splayed to reduce shrouding and enable greater airflow.

Valvetrain components include durable valve springs and roller-pivot rocker arms with a 1.8 ratio – the amount of movement on the valve side of the rocker arm in comparison with the pushrod side. And speaking of pushrods, the Gen-V small-block features stiffer, larger-diameter 8.7mm (outside diameter) that provide greater stiffness than the previous 7.9mm design. This enables improved high-speed valvetrain dynamic performance.

Direct Injection


Direct injection is featured on all Gen-V engines. This technology moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions.

The pistons play an integral role in the direct injection system, as they feature dished heads designed to direct the fuel spray for a more complete combustion. Design of this advanced combustion system was optimized after thousands of hours of computational analysis, representing one of the most comprehensively engineered combustion systems ever developed by General Motors.

High-Pressure Fuel Pump


The direct injection system features very high fuel pressure, up to 15Mpa (150bar), requiring a high-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump in addition to a conventional, fuel-tank-mounted pump. On all Gen V engines, the pump is mounted in the “valley” between cylinder heads – beneath the intake manifold. It is driven by the camshaft at the rear of the engine.

A “soft stop” control strategy for the pump’s internal solenoid significantly reduces the characteristic “ticking” sound of direct injection systems. Mounting the pump in valley, where it is covered by an acoustically treated intake manifold, also helps reduce noise, while also maintaining the tight, compact packaging for which all small-blocks have been known.

Expanded Active Fuel Management Operation


GM’s fuel-saving Active Fuel Management (AFM) technology is standard on all Gen-V engines and expands the range of operation by more than 10 percent over the Gen-IV family. AFM temporarily deactivates two cylinders on the 4.3L V-6 under light load conditions – effectively operating as a V-4 – and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. When cylinders are deactivated, the engine’s pumping work is reduced, which translates into real-world fuel economy improvements. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds and is virtually imperceptible.

A new dual-mode oil pump enables Gen-V engines to engage AFM earlier than Gen-IV applications, helping enhance fuel economy. Greater engine power and torque, improved vehicle aerodynamics, lower tire rolling resistance and enhanced integration of the powertrain in the vehicles also contribute to the expanded operation.

Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds feature saw cuts along their cylinder head mounting flange, which split the flange into three separate sections on the 4.3L, allowing each section to move under extreme hot-cold temperature fluctuations without interacting with, or creating stress on, another section. The cuts virtually eliminate friction on and movement of the exhaust manifold gaskets, helping ensure proper sealing for the life of the engine and reducing the chance of gasket failure.

High-Flow Intake Manifold and Electronic Throttle


The Gen-V’s intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head, while also accommodating the high-pressure fuel pump for the direct injection system, which is mounted in the valley area between the cylinder heads. It is a composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional “skull cap” acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise, as well as fuel pump noise.

An electronically controlled throttle is mounted to the intake manifold. It is a single-bore design with a 72mm on the 4.3L and features a “contactless” design that is more durable and enables greater control.

Cooling System


The Gen-V’s cooling system is redesigned, compared to the Gen-IV engine and features a new offset water pump and thermostat.

58X Ignition System


The Gen-V has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft’s position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

Additional Features


Electronic Power Steering: All Gen V engines have Electronic Power Steering and do not incorporate a conventional, hydraulic power steering system in its accessory-drive system. This enhances both performance and fuel efficiency.

Vacuum Pump: The 4.3L, 5.3L and 6.2L truck engines feature a mechanical vacuum pump to enhance braking performance. It is an engine-driven pump.

Air Induction Humidity Sensor: This new feature ensures optimal combustion efficiency, regardless of the surrounding air’s humidity.

E-85 Capability: The 4.3L and 5.3L truck engines are E-85-capable, allowing them to run on E85 ethanol, gasoline or any combination of the two fuels.

Coil-on-Plug Ignition: The Gen-V’s individual coil-near-plug ignition features advanced coils that are compact and mounted on the rocker covers, although they are positioned differently than on Gen-IV engine. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.

Iridium-Tip Spark Plugs: The spark plugs have an iridium electrode tip and an iridium core in the conductor, offering higher internal resistance while maintaining optimal spark density over its useful life. The electrode design improves combustion efficiency.

E92 Engine Controller


Operation and performance of the Gen-V is overseen by an all-new engine controller.




Overview

The fifth generation of the iconic GM small block engine family launches with the all-new 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and GMC Sierra 1500 trucks. It features the same cam-in-block architecture and 4.400-inch bore centers (the distance between the centers of each cylinder) that were born with the original small block in 1955.

Dubbed EcoTec3 in the new trucks – including a 4.3L V-6, 5.3L V-8 and 6.2L V-8 – the Gen-V engine family delivers greater efficiency, performance and durability, thanks to a combination of advanced technologies including direct injection, Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation) and dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing) that support an advanced combustion system.

Structurally, the Gen-V small-block is similar to the Gen III/IV engines, including a deep-skirt cylinder block. Refinements and new or revised components are used throughout, including a revised cooling system and all-new cylinder heads. The engine is also designed to accommodate an engine-driven high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection system.

Type: 5.3L Gen V V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 5328cc (325 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 11.0:1
Valve configuration: overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Tonawanda, Ramos and St. Catherines
Valve lifters: hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 96.01 x 92mm
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Regular unleaded and E85
Maximum Engine Speed: 5800 rpm
Emissions controls: catalytic converter
three-way catalyst
positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
355 hp (265 kW) @ 5600 Rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
376 hp (280 kW) @ 5600 Rpm SAE Certified - E85
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
383 lb-ft. (518 Nm) @ 4100 Rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
416 lb-ft. (564 Nm) @ 4000 Rpm SAE Certified - E85
MATERIALS
Block: Cast Aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast Nodular Iron
Main bearing caps: Powder Metal
Crankshaft: Cast Nodular Iron
Camshaft: Billet Steel
Connecting rods: Forged Powder Metal
Additional features: Active Fuel ManagementTM
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
E85 Flex Fuel
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Dexos 0W20
Dual-pressure control and variable displacement oil pump
58x crank timing
Chevrolet Silverado (All Cabs) Transmission
MYC-6L80
GMC Sierra (All Cabs)
MYC-6L80

Cylinder block


The all-new Gen-V cylinder block shares two key design elements with GM’s original small-block V-8: a 90-degree cylinder angle and 4.400-inch bore centers. The bore and stroke dimensions are 3.92-inch (99.6 mm) bore x 3.62-inch (92 mm) stroke (262 cubic inches) for the 4.3L.

Compared to the Gen-IV engine, the Gen-V’s aluminum cylinder block casting is all-new, but based on the same basic architecture. It was refined and modified to accommodate the mounting of the engine-driven fuel pump and vacuum pump. It also incorporates new engine mount attachments, new knock sensor locations, improved sealing and oil-spray piston cooling.

Oiling System


The oiling system is revised and features a new, dual-pressure-control and variable-displacement vane pump with increased flow capacity. As with the Gen-III/Gen-IV engines, the oil pump is driven by the crankshaft. Variable displacement enables the pump to efficiently deliver oil pump flow as demanded. Dual pressure-control enables operation at a very efficient oil pressure at lower rpm coordinated with the Active Fuel Management and operation at a higher pressure at higher engine speeds providing a more robust lube system with aggressive engine operation.

All Gen-V engines are designed to be used with GM’s Dexos semi-synthetic motor oil. “Thinner” oil is used, too, which helps reduce friction to enhance efficiency. The 4.3L V-6 uses 5W30 oil, held in a six-quart aluminum oil pan.

Oil-Spray Piston Cooling


All Gen-V engines feature oil-spray piston cooling, in which eight oil-spraying jets in the engine block drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The oil spray reduces piston temperature, promoting extreme output and long-term durability. The extra layer of oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Rotating assembly and windage tray


Within the 4.3L's block is a durable rotating assembly that includes a steel crankshaft and 6.125-inch-long, powder-metal connecting rods, as well as high-strength, aluminum-alloy pistons. The connecting rods have a new profile that enhances strength.

The pistons are lightweight, which enhances high-rpm performance, as they enable the engine to rev quicker. They also have a unique head topography that is essential to the direct injection system. The “bowl” and shape of the top of the piston head is designed to promote thorough mixing of the air and fuel – a dished center section helps direct the fuel spray from the injector – to ensure complete combustion, which improves performance and efficiency, particularly on cold starts.

The crankshaft in the Gen-V small block is located with new nodular main bearing caps – a significant upgrade over more conventional grey iron main caps. Nodular caps are stronger and can better absorb vibrations and other harmonics to help produce smoother, quieter performance.

A redesigned windage tray is also used with the Gen-V engine, which features a new oil scraper design. This enhances performance and efficiency by improving oil flow control and bay-to-bay crankcase breathing. The cylinder block an main bearing caps maintain the optimal cranksase “windows” that were perfected on the Gen-IV engine.

PCV-Integrated Rocker Covers


One of the most distinctive features of the Gen V family is its domed rocker covers, which house a patent-pending, integrated positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system that enhances oil economy and oil life, while reducing oil consumption and contributing to low emissions. The rocker covers also hold the direct-mount ignition coils for the coil-near-plug ignition system. Between the individual coil packs, the domed sections of the covers contain baffles that separate oil and air from the crankcase gases – about three times the oil/air separation capability of previous engines.

Camshaft Design


Also rotating inside the engine block is a hydraulic roller-lifter camshaft. Compared to the Gen-IV small-block, the camshaft remains in the same position relative to the crankshaft and is used with a new rear cam bearing. The camshaft also features an all-new “trilobe” to drive the engine-mounted, high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection combustion system.

The camshaft specifications for the 4.3L include: 12.7/12.5mm (0.500/0.492-inch) intake/exhaust lift, 193/199-crank angle degrees intake/exhaust duration at 0.050-inch tappet lift and 113-degree cam angle lobe separation.

Dual-Equal Cam Phasing


All Gen V engines feature dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing), which works with Active Fuel Management to enhance fuel economy, while also maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions.

A vane-type phaser is installed on the front of the camshaft to change its angular orientation relative to the sprocket, thereby adjusting the timing of valve operation on the fly. It is a dual-equal cam phasing system that adjusts camshaft timing at the same rate for both intake and exhaust valves. The system allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

The vane phaser is actuated by hydraulic pressure and flow from engine oil, and managed by a solenoid that controls oil flow to the phaser.

Cylinder Head Design


The Gen-V small-block’s all-new cylinder head design builds on the excellent, racing-proven airflow attributes of previous small-block heads and matches it with an all-new direct-injection combustion system. It supports tremendous airflow at higher rpm for a broad horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

Compared to the Gen-IV cylinder head design, the Gen-V head features a smaller, 59.18cc combustion chamber on the 4.3L, which is designed to complement the volume of the piston’s dish. The smaller chamber size and dished pistons work together to produce an 11.0:1 compression ratio. The spark plug angle and depth have been modified to protrude farther into the chamber, placing the electrode closer to the center of the combustion to support the direct injection system.

In addition to the new combustion chamber design, the Gen-V head features large, straight and rectangular intake ports that feature a slight twist to enhance mixture motion. This is complemented by a reversal of the intake and exhaust valve positions as compared to the Gen-IV design. The exhaust port shapes are optimized for the new valve locations, with new port opening locations at the manifold face.

Large, lightweight intake and exhaust valves are used in the aluminum alloy heads, including 1.93-inch (49mm) intake and 1.56-inch (39.5mm) exhaust valves for the 4.3L

The lightweight valves enable the engine to rev quickly and capably to greater than 6,000 rpm. The valves are held at new, 12.6-degree intake/12.1-degree exhaust angles vs. the Gen-IV’s 15-degree angle. Additionally, the valves are splayed to reduce shrouding and enable greater airflow.

Valvetrain components include durable valve springs and roller-pivot rocker arms with a 1.8 ratio – the amount of movement on the valve side of the rocker arm in comparison with the pushrod side. And speaking of pushrods, the Gen-V small-block features stiffer, larger-diameter 8.7mm (outside diameter) that provide greater stiffness than the previous 7.9mm design. This enables improved high-speed valvetrain dynamic performance.

Direct Injection


Direct injection is featured on all Gen-V engines. This technology moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions.

The pistons play an integral role in the direct injection system, as they feature dished heads designed to direct the fuel spray for a more complete combustion. Design of this advanced combustion system was optimized after thousands of hours of computational analysis, representing one of the most comprehensively engineered combustion systems ever developed by General Motors.

High-Pressure Fuel Pump


The direct injection system features very high fuel pressure, up to 15Mpa (150bar), requiring a high-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump in addition to a conventional, fuel-tank-mounted pump. On all Gen V engines, the pump is mounted in the “valley” between cylinder heads – beneath the intake manifold. It is driven by the camshaft at the rear of the engine.

A “soft stop” control strategy for the pump’s internal solenoid significantly reduces the characteristic “ticking” sound of direct injection systems. Mounting the pump in valley, where it is covered by an acoustically treated intake manifold, also helps reduce noise, while also maintaining the tight, compact packaging for which all small-blocks have been known.

Expanded Active Fuel Management Operation


GM’s fuel-saving Active Fuel Management (AFM) technology is standard on all Gen-V engines and expands the range of operation by more than 10 percent over the Gen-IV family. AFM temporarily deactivates two cylinders on the 4.3L V-6 under light load conditions – effectively operating as a V-4 – and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. When cylinders are deactivated, the engine’s pumping work is reduced, which translates into real-world fuel economy improvements. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds and is virtually imperceptible.

A new dual-mode oil pump enables Gen-V engines to engage AFM earlier than Gen-IV applications, helping enhance fuel economy. Greater engine power and torque, improved vehicle aerodynamics, lower tire rolling resistance and enhanced integration of the powertrain in the vehicles also contribute to the expanded operation.

Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds feature saw cuts along their cylinder head mounting flange, which split the flange into three separate sections on the 4.3L, allowing each section to move under extreme hot-cold temperature fluctuations without interacting with, or creating stress on, another section. The cuts virtually eliminate friction on and movement of the exhaust manifold gaskets, helping ensure proper sealing for the life of the engine and reducing the chance of gasket failure.

High-Flow Intake Manifold and Electronic Throttle


The Gen-V’s intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head, while also accommodating the high-pressure fuel pump for the direct injection system, which is mounted in the valley area between the cylinder heads. It is a composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional “skull cap” acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise, as well as fuel pump noise.

An electronically controlled throttle is mounted to the intake manifold. It is a single-bore design with a 72mm on the 4.3L and features a “contactless” design that is more durable and enables greater control.

Cooling System


The Gen-V’s cooling system is redesigned, compared to the Gen-IV engine and features a new offset water pump and thermostat.

58X Ignition System


The Gen-V has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft’s position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

Additional Features


Electronic Power Steering: All Gen V engines have Electronic Power Steering and do not incorporate a conventional, hydraulic power steering system in its accessory-drive system. This enhances both performance and fuel efficiency.

Vacuum Pump: The 4.3L, 5.3L and 6.2L truck engines feature a mechanical vacuum pump to enhance braking performance. It is an engine-driven pump.

Air Induction Humidity Sensor: This new feature ensures optimal combustion efficiency, regardless of the surrounding air’s humidity.

E-85 Capability: The 4.3L and 5.3L truck engines are E-85-capable, allowing them to run on E85 ethanol, gasoline or any combination of the two fuels.

Coil-on-Plug Ignition: The Gen-V’s individual coil-near-plug ignition features advanced coils that are compact and mounted on the rocker covers, although they are positioned differently than on Gen-IV engine. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.

Iridium-Tip Spark Plugs: The spark plugs have an iridium electrode tip and an iridium core in the conductor, offering higher internal resistance while maintaining optimal spark density over its useful life. The electrode design improves combustion efficiency.

E92 Engine Controller


Operation and performance of the Gen-V is overseen by an all-new engine controller.




Overview

The fifth generation of the iconic GM small block engine family launches with the all-new 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and GMC Sierra 1500 trucks. It features the same cam-in-block architecture and 4.400-inch bore centers (the distance between the centers of each cylinder) that were born with the original small block in 1955.

Dubbed EcoTec3 in the new trucks – including a 4.3L V-6, 5.3L V-8 and 6.2L V-8 – the Gen-V engine family delivers greater efficiency, performance and durability, thanks to a combination of advanced technologies including direct injection, Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation) and dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing) that support an advanced combustion system.

Structurally, the Gen-V small-block is similar to the Gen III/IV engines, including a deep-skirt cylinder block. Refinements and new or revised components are used throughout, including a revised cooling system and all-new cylinder heads. The engine is also designed to accommodate an engine-driven high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection system.

Type: 6.2L Gen V V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 6162cc (376 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 11.5:1
Valve configuration: overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Tonawanda and St. Catherines
Valve lifters: hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 103.25 x 92mm
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Premium recommended
Maximum Engine Speed: 6000 rpm
Emissions controls: catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
420hp (313kW) @ 5600 RPM SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
460 lb-ft. (624 Nm) @ 4100 RPM SAE Certified
MATERIALS
Block: Cast Aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast Nodular Iron
Main bearing caps: Cast Nodular
Crankshaft: Forged Steel
Camshaft: Billet Steel
Connecting rods: Forged Powder Metal
Additional features: Active Fuel ManagementTM
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Dexos 0W20
Dual-pressure control and variable displacement oil pump
58x crank timing
Chevrolet Silverado (Double, Crew) Transmission
MYC-6L80
GMC Sierra (Double, Crew)
MYC-6L80

Aluminum Engine Block and Integral Oil Pan


Although based on the architecture of the LFX 3.6L, the cylinder block casting is unique to the LF3 turbocharged engine, with cast-in provisions for turbocharger coolant and oil connections, as well as positive crankcase ventilation passages. It uses nodular iron main bearing caps for greater strength to manage the higher cylinder pressures that come with turbocharging.

The block is cast from A319 aluminum alloy. This sand-cast block features strong cast-in iron bore liners, six-bolt main caps and inter-bay breather vents. A cast aluminum oil pan is stiffened to improve powertrain rigidity and reduce vehicle vibration.

Rotating Assembly with Oil-Spray Cooled Pistons


The crankshaft is made of forged steel, while the connecting rods are made of powdered metal with a higher ratio of copper, which makes them stronger and lighter. The machined aluminum pistons feature a unique dome profile specific to the Twin-Turbo application and also incorporate a top steel ring carrier for greater strength. They produce a 10.2:1 compression ratio with the engine’s unique cylinder heads. A friction-reducing polymer coating is used on the piston skirts, as well as fully floating wrist pins, which also reduce friction.

Three jet assemblies in the engine drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The jets reduce piston temperature, allowing the engine to produce more power without reducing long-term durability.

Cylinder Heads


The cylinder heads are also unique to the 3.6L Twin-Turbo. They feature a high-tumble intake port design that enhances the motion of the air charge for a more-efficient burn when it is mixed with the direct-injected fuel and ignited in the combustion chamber. The topology of the pistons, which feature centrally located dishes to direct the fuel spray from the injectors, is an integral design element of the chamber design, as the piston heads become part of the combustion chamber with direct injection.

Large, 38.3-mm intake valves and 30.6-mm sodium-filled exhaust valves enable tremendous airflow. In some conditions, the continuously variable valve timing system enables overlap conditions – when the intake and exhaust valves in a combustion chamber are briefly open at the same time – to promote airflow scavenging that helps spool the turbochargers quicker for faster boost production.

Hardened AR20 valve seat material on the exhaust side is used for its temperature robustness, while the heads are sealed to the block with multilayer-steel gaskets designed for the pressure of the turbocharging system.

Integrated Exhaust Manifolds


As with the naturally aspirated 3.6L, the heads feature integral exhaust manifolds, although upper and lower water jackets were added to the heads to provide uniform temperature distribution and optimal heat rejection. On top of the heads, new aluminum cam covers enhance quietness and are designed with greater positive crankcase ventilation volume to support the turbo system.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. Direct injection also delivers reduced cold-start emissions.

With direct injection, the higher compression ratio is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber, which reduces the charge temperature to lessen the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber, and also feature multiple outlets for best injection control.

Dual Overhead Cams with Four Valves per Cylinder


Four valves per cylinder and a silent chain valvetrain contribute to smoothness and high output. Four-cam phasing changes the timing of valve operation as operating conditions such as rpm and engine load vary, resulting in smooth, even torque delivery, high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) and excellent fuel consumption.

Cam phasing also pays big dividends in reducing exhaust emissions. By closing the exhaust valves late at appropriate times, the cam phasers create an internal exhaust-gas recirculation system.

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing (VVT), or cam phasing, helps the LFX deliver optimal performance and efficiency, and reduced emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions. Because it manages valve overlap at optimum levels, it eliminates the need for an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system.

Twin Turbochargers and Integrated Charge Air Cooling


The 3.6L Twin-Turbo uses two turbochargers to produce more than 12 pounds of boost. Using a pair of smaller turbochargers rather than a single, larger turbo helps ensure immediate performance, because smaller turbochargers spool up – achieve boost-producing turbine speed – quicker to generate horsepower-building air pressure that is fed into the engine.

A single, centrally located throttle body atop the engine controls the air charge from both turbochargers after the temperature is reduced in the intercooler. This efficient design fosters more immediate torque response, for a greater feeling of power on demand, and reduces complexity by eliminating the need for a pair of throttle bodies.

The Cadillac Twin-Turbo’s integrated charge air cooling system also contributes to its immediate response, because the compressors blow through very short pipes up to the intercooler. With no circuitous heat-exchanger tubing, there is essentially no lag with the response of the turbochargers. In fact, airflow routing volume is reduced by 60 percent when compared with a conventional design that features a remotely mounted heat exchanger.

The charge-cooling heat exchangers lower the air charge temperature by more than 130 degrees F (74 C), packing the combustion chambers with cooler, denser air for greater power. The twin-brick configuration of the heat exchangers is similar in design and function to the 6.2L supercharged “LSA” engine used on the CTS-V Series and Chevrolet Camaro ZL1.

The air cooler system achieves more than 80 percent cooling efficiency with only about 1 psi (7 kPa) flow restriction at peak power, for fast torque production.

Vacuum-Activated Wastegates


Unique vacuum-actuated wastegates – one per turbocharger – and electronic vacuum-actuated recirculation valves are used with the 3.6L Twin-Turbo for better management of the engine’s boost pressure and subsequent torque response for smoother, more consistent performance across the rpm band.

A wastegate is used to regulate the boost pressure of the engine. It provides a method to bypass the exhaust flow from the turbo’s turbine wheel, which can be reintroduced into the exhaust stream – via a bypass tube – to maintain optimal turbine speed across the rpm band. Conventional wastegates are pressure-activated, allowing control of the actuator.

The 3.6LTwin-Turbo’s vacuum-activated wastegate valves provide more consistent boost control, particularly at lower rpm, to enhance low-rpm torque, for a greater feeling of power at low speeds. They are independently controlled on each engine bank to balance the compressors’ output to achieve more precise boost pressure response.

The wastegates also work in concert with the recirculation valves to eliminate co-surge from the turbos – a condition that can result in dynamic flow reversal, such as the moment immediately after the throttle closes. This overall system integration contributes to the engine’s smoother, more consistent feeling of performance.

In addition to the vacuum-actuated wastegates and recirculation valves, the engine employs dual mass air flow sensors and an integral inlet air temperature/humidity sensor, a dual-compressor inlet pressure sensor and dual manifold pressure sensors.




Overview

The new 3.6L Twin-Turbo V-6 – used exclusively in the 2014 Cadillac CTS VSport and XTS – is the most power-dense six-cylinder engine in the midsize luxury segment – is the most powerful V-6 ever from General Motors. It is rated at an SAE-certified 420 horsepower (313 kW) and 430 lb.-ft. of torque (583 Nm) in the CTS VSport and 410 horsepower (306 kW) in the XTS.

A pair of smaller turbochargers and an efficient charge air cooler help provide more immediate power delivery. Additionally, approximately 90 percent of the 3.6L Twin-Turbo’s peak torque is available from 2,500 rpm to 5,500 rpm, giving the engine a broad torque curve that drivers feel as strong, willing power in almost all driving conditions.

The architecture of the 3.6L Twin-Turbo is based on the naturally aspirated 3.6L V-6 known by the LFX engine code, but with almost entirely all-new components.

Type: 3.6L V6 Turbo
Displacement: 3564 cc ( 217 ci )
Engine Orientation: L= Longitudinal T=Transverse L & T
Compression ratio: 10.2:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site/s: Ramos Arizpe
Valve lifters: Roller follower with hydraulic lash adjusters
Firing order: 1-2-3-4-5-6
Bore x stroke: 94.0 x 85.6 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 103
Bore Area ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 416.37
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Premium required
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
BIN 4
Dual close coupled and U/F catalysts
Positive crankcase ventilation
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500rpm
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) engine plant as shipped weight 220 / 485
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Cadillac CTS 420hp (313kW) @ 5750 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac XTS 410hp (306kW) @ 6000 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Cadillac CTS 430 lb.ft. (583 Nm) @ 3500 - 4500 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac XTS 369 lb.ft. (500 Nm) @ 1900 - 5600 rpm SAE Certified
MATERIALS
Block: Sand cast aluminum (319) with cast in iron bore liners
Cylinder head: Aluminum (356)
Intake manifold: Aluminum ( Lower ), Aluminum ( Upper )
Main bearing caps: Nodular iron
Crankshaft: Forged Steel
Camshaft: Austempered ductile iron
Connecting rods: Powdered metal
Additional features: Four-cam continuously variable cam phasing
Twin turbochargers
Dual vacuum actuated wastegates
Cam driven mechanical vacuum pump
Dual mass air flow sensors
Humidity sensor
Integrated charge air cooler
Pressure-actuated piston cooling jets
Torque-based engine management system
Secondary throat cut inlet ports
Direct injection fuel system
High-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump with stainless steel fuel rails
Electronic Throttle Control w/ integrated Cruise Control
Structural front cover with damper plates removed
Iridium center electrode / platinum side wire tip spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Extended life EPDM accessory drive belt
7.7mm IT chain system for all HFV6 applications
Coil-on-plug ignition
Structural cast-aluminum oil pan with steel baffles
GM Oil Life System
5W30 Dexos oil
Cadillac CTS Sedan Transmission
MGG-TL-80SN
Cadillac XTS
MHM-6T80 AWD-CU

Engine Block


A cast aluminum cylinder block with cast-in iron liners serves as the foundation for the 2.5L. The block features cast iron bearing cap inserts and a strong, forged steel crankshaft to help reduce noise and vibrations and improve durability, while refinements to the oil distribution system enable improved flow through the engine.

Aluminum Pistons with Jet-Spray Cooling


The Ecotec 2.5L uses lightweight aluminum pistons, for less reciprocating mass inside the engine to enhance efficiency, decrease vibration and bolster the feeling of performance as rpm increases. Each piston has its own directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and operational noise, while also bolstering the engine's durability.

Cylinder Head


The Ecotec 2.5L has a 356T6 aluminum cylinder head cast with advanced semi-permanent mold technology to provide excellent strength, reduced machining and optimal port flow. The cylinder head is designed specifically for direct injection into each combustion chamber and includes a premium valve seat, valve guide and valve materials. The cylinder head also has integral cast oil passages that feed a set of internal oil control valves that activate cam phasers, enabling variable valve timing.

DOHC with Enhanced Authority Cam Phasing


Overhead camshafts are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while phasing changes the timing of valve operation for an optimal balance of performance and efficiency. The 2.5L’s enhanced authority cam phasing takes the continuously variable performance to the next level, with 4X timing reluctors and digital sensors that enable more accurate timing measurements and more immediate adjustments.

Variable Intake Valve System


The LKW 2.5L features a unique two-step intake valve actuation system designed to enhance efficiency and help lower emissions, while also enhancing low-rpm torque, for a greater feeling of power at lower speeds.

When the 2.5L’s iVLC system operates in low-lift mode, the engine pumps only the air it needs to meet the driver’s demand. The system switches to high-lift mode at higher speeds or under heavy loads, providing the full output capability of the engine.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. Direct injection also reduces cold-start emissions.

With direct injection, the higher compression ratio is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber. This reduces the charge temperature and lessens the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber and also feature multiple outlets for best injection control.

Cam-Driven High-Pressure Fuel Pump


A high-pressure, cam-driven pump provides the fuel pressure required of the direct injection system in the Ecotec 2.5L. The engine-mounted fuel pump is augmented by a conventional electrically operated supply pump in the fuel tank.

Two-Stage, Variable-Displacement Oil Pump


The variable-flow oiling system helps maximize fuel efficiency. Rather than the linear operation of a conventional fixed-flow pump, a crankshaft-driven oil pump matches the oil supply to the engine load. The engine’s variable-flow pump changes its capacity based on the engine’s demand for oil.

The flow volume of the oil pump is designed to support the engine’s oiling requirements, including piston cooling and camshaft phasing. The cam phasers are supplied with oil through separate bores in the cylinder block and head. The recirculation of the increased amount of oil in the cylinder head is permitted through additional pre-cast oil return channels.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel, composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable, biodegradable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Refinement Features


The 2.5L has refined many components to provide a quiet, efficient engine. The engine’s noise frequency signature pushes radiated noises into a higher frequency range to maintain low noise levels. Other highlights include:

Balance shafts reduce noise through a shorter, quieter drive chain, as well as precision shaft-to-shaft reversing gears and light drag torque from driving the oil pump. The oil pump is located within the oil pan where it is driven by the second balance shift, reducing noise and providing a small drag torque for quiet balance shaft gear operation The camshaft drive uses an inverted-tooth chain to reduce noise and enhance durability

A unique, two-piece oil pan made of aluminum and stamped steel offers a stiff structure and noise reduction Structural camshaft and front covers improve stiffness for less noise and excellent oil sealing An acoustic intake manifold cover, a forged steel crankshaft, an isolated fuel rail and iron main bear cap inserts all help reduce noise.




Overview

The Ecotec 2.5L I-4 iVLC DOHC four-cylinder engine with direct injection employs variable valve lift control and start/stop technology. The variable intake valve actuation enhances efficiency and helps lower emissions, while also enhancing low-rpm torque, for a greater feeling of power at lower speeds. New start/stop technology shuts down the 2.5L engine to save fuel when the vehicle stops momentarily, such as stoplights, to save fuel and reduce emissions. The engine automatically starts again when the driver takes his or her foot off the brake. An auxiliary battery powers electric accessories such as the climate system, power windows and radio during engine restarts.

The new 2.5L is SAE-certified at 196 horsepower (145 kW) and 186 lb.-ft. of torque (253 Nm) and is offered exclusively in the Chevrolet Impala and Malibu.

Type: 2.5L I-4
Displacement: 2457 cc (150 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) L & T
Compression ratio: 11.3:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Tonawanda, NY, Spring Hill, TN
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1-3-4-2
Bore x Stroke: 88.00 x 101.00mm
Fuel system: SIDI (Spark Ignited Direct Injection)
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded, E0-E100
Maximum Engine Speed: 7000 rpm
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Catalytic converters (close coupled and underfloor)
Positive crankcase ventilation
Secondary air injection
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Impala 196 hp (146 kW) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Malibu 196 hp (146 kW) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Impala 186 lb-ft. (252 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Malibu 186 lb-ft. (252 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE Certified
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum 319T7
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum 356T6
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: High silicon molybdenum, cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Iron inserts cast into Bedplate
Crankshaft: Steel
Camshaft: Assembled steel
Connecting rods: Forged powdered metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Intake Valve Lift Control
Variable Valve Timing
Belt Alternator Starter system capable
2-stage variable displacement oil pump
Modular balance shaft system in oil pan
Precision sand cast block with cast-in-place iron liners
Spin on oil filter
Integrated N&V cover on intake manifold
Integrated front engine mount for transverse installation
Exhaust on left-hand side and intake on right-hand side
Chevrolet Impala Transmission
MH7-6T45
Chevrolet Malibu
MNH-6T40 Gen 3 Aux Pump

Cylinder block


The all-new Gen-V cylinder block shares two key design elements with GM’s original small-block V-8: a 90-degree cylinder angle and 4.400-inch bore centers. The bore and stroke dimensions are: 4.06-inch (103.25 mm) bore x 3.62-inch (92 mm) stroke.

Compared to the Gen-IV small block, the Gen-V’s aluminum cylinder block casting is all-new, but based on the same basic architecture. It was refined and modified to accommodate the mounting of the engine-driven fuel pump and vacuum pump. It also incorporates new engine mount attachments, new knock sensor locations, improved sealing and oil-spray piston cooling.

Oiling System


The oiling system is revised and features a new, dual-pressure-control and variable-displacement vane pump with increased flow capacity. As with the Gen-III/Gen-IV engines, the oil pump is driven by the crankshaft. Variable displacement enables the pump to efficiently deliver oil pump flow as demanded. Dual pressure-control enables operation at a very efficient oil pressure at lower rpm coordinated with the Active Fuel Management and operation at a higher pressure at higher engine speeds providing a more robust lube system with aggressive engine operation.

All Gen-V engines are designed to be used with GM’s Dexos semi-synthetic motor oil. “Thinner” oil is used, too, which helps reduce friction to enhance efficiency. The LT1 6.2L uses 5W30.

The Corvette’s LT1 engine features a structural aluminum six-quart oil pan. A dry-sump oiling system with a 10.5-quart capacity is included with the optional Z51 Performance Package.

Oil-Spray Piston Cooling


All Gen-V engines feature oil-spray piston cooling, in which eight oil-spraying jets in the engine block drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The oil spray reduces piston temperature, promoting extreme output and long-term durability. The extra layer of oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Rotating assembly and windage tray


Within the Gen-V block is a durable rotating assembly that includes a steel crankshaft and 6.098-inch-long, powder-metal connecting rods, as well as high-strength, aluminum-alloy pistons. The connecting rods have a new profile that enhances strength.

The pistons are lightweight, which enhances high-rpm performance, as they enable the engine to rev quicker. They also have a unique head topography that is essential to the direct injection system. The “bowl” and shape of the top of the piston head is designed to promote thorough mixing of the air and fuel – a dished center section helps direct the fuel spray from the injector – to ensure complete combustion, which improves performance and efficiency, particularly on cold starts.

The crankshaft in the Gen-V small block is located with new nodular main bearing caps – a significant upgrade over more conventional grey iron main caps. Nodular caps are stronger and can better absorb vibrations and other harmonics to help produce smoother, quieter performance.

A redesigned windage tray is also used with the Gen-V engine, which features a new oil scraper design. This enhances performance and efficiency by improving oil flow control and bay-to-bay crankcase breathing. The cylinder block an main bearing caps maintain the optimal cranksase “windows” that were perfected on the Gen-IV engine.

PCV-Integrated Rocker Covers


One of the most distinctive features of the Gen V family is its domed rocker covers, which house a patent-pending, integrated positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system that enhances oil economy and oil life, while reducing oil consumption and contributing to low emissions. The rocker covers also hold the direct-mount ignition coils for the coil-near-plug ignition system. Between the individual coil packs, the domed sections of the covers contain baffles that separate oil and air from the crankcase gases – about three times the oil/air separation capability of previous engines.

Camshaft Design


Also rotating inside the engine block is a hydraulic roller-lifter camshaft. Compared to the Gen-IV small-block, the camshaft remains in the same position relative to the crankshaft and is used with a new rear cam bearing. The camshaft also features an all-new “trilobe” to drive the engine-mounted, high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection combustion system.

The LT1 camshaft’s specifications lift include: 0.551/0.524-intake/exhaust lift, 200/207-crank angle degrees intake/exhaust duration at 0.050 tappet lift and 116.5-degree cam angle lobe separation.

Dual-Equal Cam Phasing


All Gen V engines feature dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing), which works with Active Fuel Management to enhance fuel economy, while also maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions.

At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, allowing exceptionally smooth idling. Under other conditions, the phaser adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, driveability and fuel economy. At high rpm it may retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm it can advance timing to increase torque. Under a light loads, it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

A vane-type phaser is installed on the front of the camshaft to change its angular orientation relative to the sprocket, thereby adjusting the timing of valve operation on the fly. It is a dual-equal cam phasing system that adjusts camshaft timing at the same rate for both intake and exhaust valves. The system allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

The vane phaser is actuated by hydraulic pressure and flow from engine oil, and managed by a solenoid that controls oil flow to the phaser.

Cylinder Head Design


The Gen-V small-block’s all-new cylinder head design builds on the excellent, racing-proven airflow attributes of previous small-block heads and matches it with an all-new direct-injection combustion system. It supports tremendous airflow at higher rpm for a broad horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

Compared to the Gen-IV cylinder head design, the LT1 head features a smaller, 59.02cc combustion chamber. It is designed to complement the volume of the piston’s dish. The smaller chamber size and dished pistons work together to produce an 11.5:1 compression ratio. The spark plug angle and depth have been modified to protrude farther into the chamber, placing the electrode closer to the center of the combustion to support the direct injection system.

In addition to the new combustion chamber design, the Gen-V head features large, straight and rectangular intake ports that feature a slight twist to enhance mixture motion. This is complemented by a reversal of the intake and exhaust valve positions as compared to the Gen-IV design. The exhaust port shapes are optimized for the new valve locations, with new port opening locations at the manifold face.

Large, lightweight intake and exhaust valves are used in the aluminum alloy heads, with 2.13-inch (54mm) hollow intake and 1.59-inch (40.4mm) hollow sodium exhaust valves. The lightweight valves enable the engine to rev quickly and capably to greater than 6,000 rpm.

The valves are held at new 12.5 degrees intake/12 degrees exhaust angles vs. the Gen-IV’s 15-degree angle. Additionally, the valves are splayed at 2.61 degrees intake/2.38 degrees exhaust to reduce shrouding and enable greater airflow.

Valvetrain components include durable valve springs and roller-pivot rocker arms with a 1.8 ratio – the amount of movement on the valve side of the rocker arm in comparison with the pushrod side. And speaking of pushrods, the Gen-V small-block features stiffer, larger-diameter 8.7mm (outside diameter) that provide greater stiffness than the previous 7.9mm design. This enables improved high-speed valvetrain dynamic performance.

The heads are made with 319-T7 aluminum alloy, using a semi-permanent mold process that produces a more accurate casting for optimal mass reduction and minimal machining.

Direct Injection


Direct injection is featured on all Gen-V engines. This technology moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions.

The pistons play an integral role in the direct injection system, as they feature dished heads designed to direct the fuel spray for a more complete combustion. Design of this advanced combustion system was optimized after thousands of hours of computational analysis, representing one of the most comprehensively engineered combustion systems ever developed by General Motors.

High-Pressure Fuel Pump


The direct injection system features very high fuel pressure, up to 15Mpa (150bar), requiring a high-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump in addition to a conventional, fuel-tank-mounted pump. On all Gen V engines, the pump is mounted in the “valley” between cylinder heads – beneath the intake manifold. It is driven by the camshaft at the rear of the engine.

A “soft stop” control strategy for the pump’s internal solenoid significantly reduces the characteristic “ticking” sound of direct injection systems. Mounting the pump in valley, where it is covered by an acoustically treated intake manifold, also helps reduce noise, while also maintaining the tight, compact packaging for which all small-blocks have been known.

Active Fuel Management


Active Fuel Management temporarily deactivates four of the cylinders and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. When cylinders are deactivated, the engine’s pumping work is reduced, which translates into real-world fuel economy improvements. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds and is virtually imperceptible.

The key to AFM’s efficiency and seamless operation is a set of two-stage hydraulic valve lifters, which allows the lifters of deactivated cylinders to operate without actuating the valves. In engineering terms, this allows the working cylinders to achieve better thermal, volumetric and mechanical efficiency and lowering cyclical combustion variation from cylinder to cylinder. As a result, AFM delivers better fuel economy and lower operating costs. The only mechanical components required are special valve lifters for cylinders that are deactivated, and their control system. Active Fuel Management relies on three primary components: Collapsible or “de-ac” (deactivation) valve lifters, a Lifter Oil Manifold Assembly (LOMA) and the engine controller, which determines when to deactivate cylinders.

Exhaust Manifolds


The LT1 engine uses a similar yet cast version of the “four-into-one” short-header exhaust manifold design used on the Gen-IV LS7 engine. The cast header passages enable consistent exhaust flow into the “wide mouth” collector at the converter.

High-Flow Intake Manifold and Electronic Throttle


The Gen-V’s intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head, while also accommodating the high-pressure fuel pump for the direct injection system, which is mounted in the valley area between the cylinder heads. It is a composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional “skull cap” acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise, as well as fuel pump noise.

The LT1 intake manifold features a “runners in a box” design, wherein individual runners inside the manifold feed a plenum box that allows for excellent, high-volume airflow packaged beneath the car’s low hood line.

An electronically controlled throttle is mounted to the intake manifold. It is a single-bore design with an 87mm bore diameter features a “contactless” design that is more durable and enables greater control.

Cooling System


The Gen-V’s cooling system is redesigned, compared to the Gen-IV engine and features a new offset water pump and thermostat.

58X Ignition System


The Gen-V has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft’s position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

In conjunction with 58X crankshaft timing, the Gen-V applies the latest digital cam-timing technology. The cam sensor is located in the front engine cover, and it reads a 4X sensor target on the on the cam phaser's rotor which is attached to front end of the cam. The target ring has four equally spaced segments that communicate the camshaft’s position more quickly and accurately than previous systems with a single segment.

The dual 58X/4X measurement ensures extremely accurate timing for the life of the engine. Moreover, it provides an effective backup system in the event one sensor fails.

Additional Features


Electronic Power Steering: All Gen V engines have Electronic Power Steering and do not incorporate a conventional, hydraulic power steering system in its accessory-drive system. This enhances both performance and fuel efficiency.

Air Induction Humidity Sensor: This new feature ensures optimal combustion efficiency, regardless of the surrounding air’s humidity.

Coil-on-Plug Ignition: The Gen-V’s individual coil-near-plug ignition features advanced coils that are compact and mounted on the rocker covers, although they are positioned differently than on Gen-IV engine. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.

Iridium-Tip Spark Plugs: The spark plugs have an iridium electrode tip and an iridium core in the conductor, offering higher internal resistance while maintaining optimal spark density over its useful life. The electrode design improves combustion efficiency.

E92 Engine Controller


Operation and performance of the Gen-V is overseen by an all-new engine controller.





Overview

The new 6.2L LT1 engine that debuts in the 2014 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray represents the most significant redesign in the small block’s nearly 60-year history – building on its legacy to make one of the world’s best engines even better. It is part of a new Gen V small block family, with a cam-in-block architecture and 4.400-inch bore centers (the distance between the centers of each cylinder) that are design features shared with the very first small block upon its launch in 1955.

Several advanced technologies, including direct injection, Active Fuel Management and continuously variable valve timing support an advanced combustion system that helps the LT1 engine – the third small block to carry the name in Corvette’s history – produce 460 horsepower and 465 lb.-ft. of torque (with an optional exhaust system) with greater efficiency.

Type: 6.2L Gen V V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 6162cc (376 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 11.5:1
Valve configuration: overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Tonawanda
Valve lifters: hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 103.25 x 92mm
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Premium Recommended
Maximum Engine Speed: 6600 rpm
Emissions controls: catalytic converter
three-way catalyst
positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Corvette Base Exhaust
Chevrolet Corvette Z51 Base Exhaust
455 hp (339 kW) @ 6000 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Corvette Performance Exhaust
Chevrolet Corvette Z51 Performance Exhaust
460 hp (343 kW) @ 6000 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Corvette Base Exhaust
Chevrolet Corvette Z51 Base Exhaust
460 lb-ft. (624 Nm) 4600 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Corvette Performance Exhaust
Chevrolet Corvette Z51 Performance Exhaust
465 lb-ft. (630 Nm) @ 4600 rpm SAE Certified
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast Nodular Iron
Main bearing caps: Cast Nodular
Crankshaft: Forged Steel
Camshaft: Billet Steel
Connecting rods: Forged Powder Metal
Additional features: Active Fuel ManagementTM
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Dexos 5W30
Dual-pressure control and variable displacement oil pump
58x crank timing
Chevrolet Corvette (Coupe, Convertible) Transmission
MYC-6L80
MEL-TR6070
Chevrolet Corvette Z51 (Coupe, Convertible) Transmission
MYC-6L80
MEP-TR6070

Cylinder Block and Head


The cylinder block is made of strong gray cast iron, with five main bearings. To minimize weight, it features an aluminum cylinder block, which helps the 2.0L turbo-diesel weigh in at only 408 pounds (185 kg).

The cylinder head incorporates dual overhead camshafts with four valves per cylinder and maintenance-free hydraulic lifters with low-friction roller-finger followers. Quiet belt-driven cams/valvetrain with high-strength belt material and tensioner rated for 100,000 miles

Rotating Assembly


A forged steel crankshaft anchors the engine’s rotating assembly, delivering exceptional durability over a long engine life. It is used with steel connecting rods, floating piston pin bearings, and high-strength aluminum pistons. The piston also feature a reinforced top ring and integral combustion bowl design that’s an integral component of the combustion system.

Piston oil jets that help reduce friction and optimize piston temperature for greater performance and efficiency. The jets, mounted at the bottom of each cylinder, are part of the engine’s oiling circuit and spray engine oil at the bottom of the pistons.

Central Direct Injection and Common Rail Fuel System


The 2.0L turbo-diesel uses a central direct fuel injection system, with the injectors positioned in the middle of each cylinder and the bowl in the pistons serving as the combustion chambers. This enables a high 16.5:1 compression ratio that enhances power and combustion efficiency.

A common-rail fuel system with Piezo fuel injectors creates multiple injections per combustion for greater performance, combustion efficiency and quietness. Piezo injectors allow a more precise metering of fuel for a smoother idle and lower combustion noise.

Ceramic glow plugs are employed with the combustion system. They provide greater cold-start performance over conventional metal glow plugs (an engine oil heater is offered for cold climates).

Intercooled Turbocharging System


A variable-nozzle turbocharger broadens the 2.0L turbo-diesel’s overall torque curve. It is mounted close to the exhaust outlet of the engine for quicker “spool up” of the turbine and faster “light off” of the exhaust catalyst. The turbocharger bearings are oil-lubricated and cooled via an oil cooler.

An intercooling system produces a cooler, denser air charge for greater torque and power.

Variable-Swirl Intake Manifold


A variable-swirl intake manifold design optimizes air charge mixture motion in the cylinders for a more-efficient combustion that enhances performance and reduces emissions.

Variable-Displacement Oiling System


The variable-flow oiling system helps maximize fuel efficiency with a crankshaft-driven oil pump that matches the oil supply to the engine load. The engine’s variable-flow pump changes its capacity based on demand for oil rather than using energy to pump oil that is not required.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation


A precise exhaust gas recirculation control system features a high-capacity cooler and bypass feature that enable the engine to meet United States and Canada’s tough diesel emissions regulations. The exhaust after-treatment system is similar to what is used on Chevrolet’s heavy-duty trucks and vans equipped with the Duramax diesel, including a diesel particulate filter and diesel emission fluid injection.

An approximately 4.5-gallon (17 liters) tank holds enough diesel emissions fluid for an estimated 8,000 miles (13,000 km) of driving between refills. The system is also designed for servicing to coincide with oil changes, for greater convenience.

B20 Biodiesel Capability


The 2.0L turbo-diesel is capable of running on B20 biodiesel, a fuel composed of 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent conventional diesel. B20 helps lower carbon dioxide emissions and lessens dependence on petroleum. It is a domestically produced, renewable fuel made primarily of plant matter – mostly soybean oil.




Overview

The all-new, Chevrolet Cruze Clean Turbo Diesel achieves an EPA-rated 46 mpg on the highway – better than any non-hybrid or gasoline passenger car in America. The Cruze Diesel can also travel 717 miles on a single tank of fuel. It is the only diesel-powered passenger car offered by GM in the United States and Canada.

SAE-certified at 151 horsepower (113 kW) and 264 lb.-ft. of torque (358 Nm), the 2.0L turbo-diesel enables 0-60 performance of about 8.6 seconds in the Cruze. It also produces at least 250 lb.-ft. of torque (339 Nm) between 1,750 and 3,000 rpm and has an overboost feature capable of increasing torque to an estimated 280 lb.-ft. (380 Nm), for short bursts of stronger acceleration.

The Cruze Diesel’s unique 2.0L turbo-diesel engine is based on a proven design already used in markets around the globe. It is the cleanest diesel engine produced by General Motors and meets tough North American diesel emission standards, generating 90 percent less Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and particulate emissions compared to previous-generation diesels.

Type: Fam. B 2.0L Turbo Diesel engine
Combustion System: Compression Ignition
Induction System: Variable Geometry Turbocharger
Displacement: 1956 cc (119 ci)
Engine Orientation: Transverse
Compression ratio: 16.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Valve Timing Fixed
Assembly site: Kaiserslautern, Germany
Firing order: 1-3-4-2
Bore x Stroke: 83.00 x 90.40mm
Maximum Engine Speed: 5000 rpm
Fuel system: Direct Injection
Fuel type: B20 Bio Diesel
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) 182 kg (401 lb)
Emissions controls: Diesel Particulate Filter
Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve
Positive Crankcase Ventilation
Tier 2/LEV II BIN 5
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chervolet Cruze 151hp (113kW) @ 4000 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chervolet Cruze 264 lb-ft (358Nm) @ 2600 rpm SAE Certified
MATERIALS
Block: Cast Iron
Cylinder head: Aluminum
Intake manifold: Aluminum
Exhaust manifold: Nodular Iron
Crankshaft: Forged Steel
Camshaft: Nodular Iron
Connecting rods: Forged Steel
Additional features: Aluminium cam carrier
Poly-V belt accessory drive
Piezo Injectors
Turbocharger with variable geometry nozzle
Oil pan with integrated oil suction pipe
Forged connecting rods
Ceramic glow plugs
EGR cooling system with by-pass throttle
Piston with pinoffset
Close loop control on electronic throttle valve
New Bosch ECU Generation E47B
Oil cooler module with oil green filter
Airmass flow meter sensor with air temperature sensor integrated
Dexos II
Intercooler
Chevrolet Cruze Transmission
MDK-FWD-AF40-6 (Gen 2) FWD

Cylinder block


The all-new Gen-V cylinder block shares two key design elements with GM’s original small-block V-8: a 90-degree cylinder angle and 4.400-inch bore centers. The bore and stroke dimensions are 3.92-inch (99.6 mm) bore x 3.62-inch (92 mm) stroke (262 cubic inches) for the 4.3L.

Compared to the Gen-IV engine, the Gen-V’s aluminum cylinder block casting is all-new, but based on the same basic architecture. It was refined and modified to accommodate the mounting of the engine-driven fuel pump and vacuum pump. It also incorporates new engine mount attachments, new knock sensor locations, improved sealing and oil-spray piston cooling.

Oiling System


The oiling system is revised and features a new, dual-pressure-control and variable-displacement vane pump with increased flow capacity. As with the Gen-III/Gen-IV engines, the oil pump is driven by the crankshaft. Variable displacement enables the pump to efficiently deliver oil pump flow as demanded. Dual pressure-control enables operation at a very efficient oil pressure at lower rpm coordinated with the Active Fuel Management and operation at a higher pressure at higher engine speeds providing a more robust lube system with aggressive engine operation.

All Gen-V engines are designed to be used with GM’s Dexos semi-synthetic motor oil. “Thinner” oil is used, too, which helps reduce friction to enhance efficiency. The 4.3L V-6 uses 5W30 oil, held in a six-quart aluminum oil pan.

Oil-Spray Piston Cooling


All Gen-V engines feature oil-spray piston cooling, in which eight oil-spraying jets in the engine block drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The oil spray reduces piston temperature, promoting extreme output and long-term durability. The extra layer of oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Rotating assembly and windage tray


Within the 4.3L's block is a durable rotating assembly that includes a steel crankshaft and 6.125-inch-long, powder-metal connecting rods, as well as high-strength, aluminum-alloy pistons. The connecting rods have a new profile that enhances strength.

The pistons are lightweight, which enhances high-rpm performance, as they enable the engine to rev quicker. They also have a unique head topography that is essential to the direct injection system. The “bowl” and shape of the top of the piston head is designed to promote thorough mixing of the air and fuel – a dished center section helps direct the fuel spray from the injector – to ensure complete combustion, which improves performance and efficiency, particularly on cold starts.

The crankshaft in the Gen-V small block is located with new nodular main bearing caps – a significant upgrade over more conventional grey iron main caps. Nodular caps are stronger and can better absorb vibrations and other harmonics to help produce smoother, quieter performance.

A redesigned windage tray is also used with the Gen-V engine, which features a new oil scraper design. This enhances performance and efficiency by improving oil flow control and bay-to-bay crankcase breathing. The cylinder block an main bearing caps maintain the optimal cranksase “windows” that were perfected on the Gen-IV engine.

PCV-Integrated Rocker Covers


One of the most distinctive features of the Gen V family is its domed rocker covers, which house a patent-pending, integrated positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system that enhances oil economy and oil life, while reducing oil consumption and contributing to low emissions. The rocker covers also hold the direct-mount ignition coils for the coil-near-plug ignition system. Between the individual coil packs, the domed sections of the covers contain baffles that separate oil and air from the crankcase gases – about three times the oil/air separation capability of previous engines.

Camshaft Design


Also rotating inside the engine block is a hydraulic roller-lifter camshaft. Compared to the Gen-IV small-block, the camshaft remains in the same position relative to the crankshaft and is used with a new rear cam bearing. The camshaft also features an all-new “trilobe” to drive the engine-mounted, high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection combustion system.

The camshaft specifications for the 4.3L include: 12.7/12.5mm (0.500/0.492-inch) intake/exhaust lift, 193/199-crank angle degrees intake/exhaust duration at 0.050-inch tappet lift and 113-degree cam angle lobe separation.

Dual-Equal Cam Phasing


All Gen V engines feature dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing), which works with Active Fuel Management to enhance fuel economy, while also maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions.

A vane-type phaser is installed on the front of the camshaft to change its angular orientation relative to the sprocket, thereby adjusting the timing of valve operation on the fly. It is a dual-equal cam phasing system that adjusts camshaft timing at the same rate for both intake and exhaust valves. The system allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

The vane phaser is actuated by hydraulic pressure and flow from engine oil, and managed by a solenoid that controls oil flow to the phaser.

Cylinder Head Design


The Gen-V small-block’s all-new cylinder head design builds on the excellent, racing-proven airflow attributes of previous small-block heads and matches it with an all-new direct-injection combustion system. It supports tremendous airflow at higher rpm for a broad horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

Compared to the Gen-IV cylinder head design, the Gen-V head features a smaller, 59.18cc combustion chamber on the 4.3L, which is designed to complement the volume of the piston’s dish. The smaller chamber size and dished pistons work together to produce an 11.0:1 compression ratio. The spark plug angle and depth have been modified to protrude farther into the chamber, placing the electrode closer to the center of the combustion to support the direct injection system.

In addition to the new combustion chamber design, the Gen-V head features large, straight and rectangular intake ports that feature a slight twist to enhance mixture motion. This is complemented by a reversal of the intake and exhaust valve positions as compared to the Gen-IV design. The exhaust port shapes are optimized for the new valve locations, with new port opening locations at the manifold face.

Large, lightweight intake and exhaust valves are used in the aluminum alloy heads, including 1.93-inch (49mm) intake and 1.56-inch (39.5mm) exhaust valves for the 4.3L

The lightweight valves enable the engine to rev quickly and capably to greater than 6,000 rpm. The valves are held at new, 12.6-degree intake/12.1-degree exhaust angles vs. the Gen-IV’s 15-degree angle. Additionally, the valves are splayed to reduce shrouding and enable greater airflow.

Valvetrain components include durable valve springs and roller-pivot rocker arms with a 1.8 ratio – the amount of movement on the valve side of the rocker arm in comparison with the pushrod side. And speaking of pushrods, the Gen-V small-block features stiffer, larger-diameter 8.7mm (outside diameter) that provide greater stiffness than the previous 7.9mm design. This enables improved high-speed valvetrain dynamic performance.

Direct Injection


Direct injection is featured on all Gen-V engines. This technology moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions.

The pistons play an integral role in the direct injection system, as they feature dished heads designed to direct the fuel spray for a more complete combustion. Design of this advanced combustion system was optimized after thousands of hours of computational analysis, representing one of the most comprehensively engineered combustion systems ever developed by General Motors.

High-Pressure Fuel Pump


The direct injection system features very high fuel pressure, up to 15Mpa (150bar), requiring a high-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump in addition to a conventional, fuel-tank-mounted pump. On all Gen V engines, the pump is mounted in the “valley” between cylinder heads – beneath the intake manifold. It is driven by the camshaft at the rear of the engine.

A “soft stop” control strategy for the pump’s internal solenoid significantly reduces the characteristic “ticking” sound of direct injection systems. Mounting the pump in valley, where it is covered by an acoustically treated intake manifold, also helps reduce noise, while also maintaining the tight, compact packaging for which all small-blocks have been known.

Expanded Active Fuel Management Operation


GM’s fuel-saving Active Fuel Management (AFM) technology is standard on all Gen-V engines and expands the range of operation by more than 10 percent over the Gen-IV family. AFM temporarily deactivates two cylinders on the 4.3L V-6 under light load conditions – effectively operating as a V-4 – and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. When cylinders are deactivated, the engine’s pumping work is reduced, which translates into real-world fuel economy improvements. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds and is virtually imperceptible.

A new dual-mode oil pump enables Gen-V engines to engage AFM earlier than Gen-IV applications, helping enhance fuel economy. Greater engine power and torque, improved vehicle aerodynamics, lower tire rolling resistance and enhanced integration of the powertrain in the vehicles also contribute to the expanded operation.

Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds feature saw cuts along their cylinder head mounting flange, which split the flange into three separate sections on the 4.3L, allowing each section to move under extreme hot-cold temperature fluctuations without interacting with, or creating stress on, another section. The cuts virtually eliminate friction on and movement of the exhaust manifold gaskets, helping ensure proper sealing for the life of the engine and reducing the chance of gasket failure.

High-Flow Intake Manifold and Electronic Throttle


The Gen-V’s intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head, while also accommodating the high-pressure fuel pump for the direct injection system, which is mounted in the valley area between the cylinder heads. It is a composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional “skull cap” acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise, as well as fuel pump noise.

An electronically controlled throttle is mounted to the intake manifold. It is a single-bore design with a 72mm on the 4.3L and features a “contactless” design that is more durable and enables greater control.

Cooling System


The Gen-V’s cooling system is redesigned, compared to the Gen-IV engine and features a new offset water pump and thermostat.

58X Ignition System


The Gen-V has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft’s position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

Additional Features


Electronic Power Steering: All Gen V engines have Electronic Power Steering and do not incorporate a conventional, hydraulic power steering system in its accessory-drive system. This enhances both performance and fuel efficiency.

Vacuum Pump: The 4.3L, 5.3L and 6.2L truck engines feature a mechanical vacuum pump to enhance braking performance. It is an engine-driven pump.

Air Induction Humidity Sensor: This new feature ensures optimal combustion efficiency, regardless of the surrounding air’s humidity.

E-85 Capability: The 4.3L and 5.3L truck engines are E-85-capable, allowing them to run on E85 ethanol, gasoline or any combination of the two fuels.

Coil-on-Plug Ignition: The Gen-V’s individual coil-near-plug ignition features advanced coils that are compact and mounted on the rocker covers, although they are positioned differently than on Gen-IV engine. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.

Iridium-Tip Spark Plugs: The spark plugs have an iridium electrode tip and an iridium core in the conductor, offering higher internal resistance while maintaining optimal spark density over its useful life. The electrode design improves combustion efficiency.

E92 Engine Controller


Operation and performance of the Gen-V is overseen by an all-new engine controller.




Overview

The fifth generation of the iconic GM small block engine family launches with the all-new 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and GMC Sierra 1500 trucks. It features the same cam-in-block architecture and 4.400-inch bore centers (the distance between the centers of each cylinder) that were born with the original small block in 1955.

Dubbed EcoTec3 in the new trucks - including a 4.3L V-6, 5.3L V-8 and 6.2L V-8 - the Gen-V engine family delivers greater efficiency, performance and durability, thanks to a combination of advanced technologies including direct injection, Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation) and dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing) that support an advanced combustion system.

The 4.3L V-6 is based on the V-8 versions of the Gen-V family, but with two fewer cylinders - a design lineage that dates back to the previous 4.3L V-6, which was itself a Gen-II small block with a pair of cylinders removed.

Type: 4.3L Gen V V-6 VVT ( LV3 )
Displacement: 4301 cc (262 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 11.0:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Tonawanda and Ramos, Mexico
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 99.6 x 92mm
Fuel system: SIDI
Fuel type: Regular unleaded and E85
Maximum Engine Speed: 5800 rpm
Emissions controls: Evaporative Emissions
Bin 4 emissions
Returnless fuel system
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
285 hp (213 kw) @ 5300 Rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
297 hp (221 kW) @ 5300 Rpm SAE Certified - E85
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
305 lb-ft (413 Nm) @ 3900 Rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
330 lb-ft (447 Nm) @ 3900 Rpm SAE Certified - E85
MATERIALS
Block: Cast Aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast Nodular Iron
Main bearing caps: Powder Metal
Crankshaft: Forged Steel
Camshaft: Billet Steel
Connecting rods: Powder Metal
Additional features: Active Fuel ManagementTM
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
E85 Flex Fuel
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Dexos 5W30
Dual-pressure control and variable displacement oil pump
58x crank timing
Chevrolet Silverado (All cabs) Transmission
MYC-6L80
GMC Sierra (All cabs) Transmission
MYC-6L80

Cylinder Block


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The L77's cylinder heads feature rectangular intake ports that support exceptional airflow. They support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

High-Flow Intake Manifold with Acoustic Shell


The L77's intake manifold ports are designed to match the cylinder head. The composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional "skull cap" acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

Active Fuel Management


AFM temporarily deactivates four of the L77's cylinders under light load conditions and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. AFM is managed by the engine control module (ECM). When conditions are optimal, it automatically shuts down every second cylinder, according to firing order, during light-load operation. As a result, AFM delivers better fuel economy and lower operating costs.

58X Ignition System


The L77 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Overview

The L77 6.0L V-8 offers Active Fuel Management (AFM) cylinder deactivation technology and FlexFuel capability, allowing it to run on E85 ethanol. Active Fuel Management allows the engine to operate on only four cylinders during certain light-load driving conditions, saving the fuel normally used to drive all eight cylinders. Intake flow was improved over previous engines by straightening out and optimizing the flow path from the intake manifold into the cylinder heads, while the exhaust ports are also designed for greater flow. The engine's efficiency also optimizes emissions performance.

Type: 6.0L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 5967 cc (364 ci)
Compression ratio: 10.4:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder: 2
Assembly site: Silao
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 101.6 x 92 mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection ( SFI )
Fuel type: Premium fuel recommended, not required. E85 capable
Maximum Engine Speed: 6000 RPM
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Valves per cylinder 2
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Engine Mass ( kg/lbs ) 183 / 403
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Caprice PPV 355 hp ( 265 kW ) @ 5300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Caprice PPV 384 lb-ft ( 521 Nm ) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Powder metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Active Fuel Management
Oil Life Monitor System
Oil Level Sensor
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Chevrolet Caprice PPV Transmission
MYC-6L80

Gen IV Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L94 quiet and smooth.

The L94 6.2L also features a heavy-duty timing chain developed expressly for quiet operation. The chain, which connects the camshaft and crankshaft, is validated for 200,000 miles of operation and fitted with a leaf-spring-type dampener.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The L94's cylinder heads feature rectangular intake ports that support exceptional airflow. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

Camshaft Phasing


The 6.2L features variable valve timing, maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions. At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, allowing exceptionally smooth idling. Under other conditions, the phaser adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, drivability and fuel economy. At high rpm's it may retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm's it can advance timing to increase torque. Under light loads, it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced fuel, composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable, and produces fewer greenhouse gases during the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Active Fuel Management


GM's Active Fuel Management technology increases fuel economy approximately 6 percent under the federal government's required testing procedure and potentially more in certain real-world driving conditions. AFM temporarily deactivates four of the L94's cylinders under light load conditions and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds, and is virtually indiscernible to most drivers.

High-flow Intake Manifold with Acoustic Shell


The L94's intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head. The composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional "skull cap" acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


GM has led the industry in applying electronic throttle control (ETC). With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. ETC delivers a number of benefits to the customer.

Quiet Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast nodular iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds are fitted with new triple-layer heat shields fabricated from stainless steel and insulating material. The shields limit heat transfer from the engine to the engine bay, allowing the 6.2L to reach optimal operating temperature more quickly, yet reducing heat in the engine compartment once that temperature is achieved.

58X Ignition System


The L94 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Overview

The Vortec 6.2L V-8 VVT (L94) is one of the most technically advanced truck engines in the segment, with features that include variable valve timing, Active Fuel Management cylinder-deactivating technology and E85 flex-fuel capability. The 6.2L is the most powerful of GM's Vortec V-8s. It delivers exceptional refinement to go with brute strength, and advanced technologies such as cam-in-block variable valve timing. It was also developed for quieter operation, with virtually every system or component reviewed in an effort to reduce noise, vibration and harshness. Quiet features built into the engine are complemented by an improved engine cradle and mounting system. These help reduce vibrations transmitted through the chassis and into the passenger compartment.

Type: 6.2L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 6162cc (376 ci)
Engine Orientation: L=Longitudinal, T=Transverse L
Compression ratio: 10.4:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Romulus, MI
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x Stroke: 103.25 x 92mm
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Bore Area: ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 669.82
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel type: Applications:
Premium Recommended, not Required and E85 Flex Fuel All listed models
Maximum Engine Speed: 6000 RPM
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Cadillac Escalade 403 hp ( 301 kW ) @ 5700 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Cadillac Escalade ESV 403 hp ( 301 kW ) @ 5700 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Yukon Denali 403 hp ( 301 kW ) @ 5700 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Yukon XL Denali 403 hp ( 301 kW ) @ 5700 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Cadillac Escalade 417 lb-ft ( 565 Nm ) @ 4300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Cadillac Escalade ESV 417 lb-ft ( 565 Nm ) @ 4300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Yukon Denali 417 lb-ft ( 565 Nm ) @ 4300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Yukon XL Denali 417 lb-ft ( 565 Nm ) @ 4300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder Metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Powder metal
Additional features: E85 Flex Fuel
Active Fuel Management ( AFM )
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
Cadillac Escalade, ESV Transmission
MYC-6L80
GMC Yukon Denali Transmission
MYC-6L80
GMC Yukon XL Denali
MYC-6L80

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L96 quiet and smooth.

The L96 6.0L also features a heavy-duty timing chain developed expressly for quiet operation. The chain, which connects the camshaft and crankshaft, is validated for 200,000 miles of operation and fitted with a leaf-spring-type dampener.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 6.0L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. They're derived from the high-performance cylinder heads that were used on the "C5" Chevrolet Corvette Z06 and support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

Camshaft Phasing


The 6.0L features variable valve timing, maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions. At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, allowing exceptionally smooth idling. Under other conditions, the phaser adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, drivability and fuel economy. At high rpm's it may retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm's it can advance timing to increase torque. Under light loads, it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer emissions in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

Quiet Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast nodular iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds are fitted with new triple-layer heat shields fabricated from stainless steel and insulating material. The shields limit heat transfer from the engine to the engine bay, allowing the 6.0L to reach optimal operating temperature more quickly, yet reducing heat in the engine compartment once that temperature is achieved.

58X Ignition System


The L96 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT (L96)

Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT (L96)

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Overview

The Vortec 6.0L V-8 (L96) is a heavy-duty workhorse engine. Variable valve timing helps the 6.0L (L96) optimize performance, efficiency and emissions. The 6.0L's balance of performance and efficiency is great airflow throughout. Intake flow was improved over previous engines by straightening out and optimizing the flow path from the intake manifold into the cylinder heads, while the exhaust ports are also designed for greater flow. The engine's efficiency also optimizes emissions performance.

The 6.0L is powerful, but delivers exceptional refinement to go with great strength. Quiet features built into the engine are complemented by an improved engine cradle and mounting system. These help reduce vibrations transmitted through the chassis and into the passenger compartment.

Description: 6.0L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Type: V-8
Displacement: 5967cc (364 ci)
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 9.7:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Romulus, MI and Silao, Mexico
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 101.6 x 92 mm
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel type: Applications:
Regular unleaded Chevrolet Silverado HD, Chevrolet Suburban, GMC Sierra HD, GMC Yukon XL
Regular unleaded Chevrolet Express ( Cutaway ), GMC Savana ( Cutaway )
E85 Flex Fuel Chevrolet Express ( Passenger,Cargo ), GMC Savana ( Passenger,Cargo )
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10,000 lbs 360 hp ( 268 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Sierra HD < 10,000 lbs 360 hp ( 268 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10,000 lbs 322 hp ( 240 kW ) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Sierra HD > 10,000 lbs 322 hp ( 240 kW ) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Suburban 352 hp ( 262 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Yukon XL 352 hp ( 262 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express 342 hp ( 255 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana 342 hp ( 255 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express Cutaway 342 hp ( 255 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana Cutaway 342 hp ( 255 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet GMC Cab Chassis 322 hp ( 240 kW ) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft ( Nm )
Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10,000 lbs 380 lb-ft (515 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Sierra HD < 10,000 lbs 380 lb-ft (515 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10,000 lbs 380 lb-ft (515 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Sierra HD > 10,000 lbs 380 lb-ft (515 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Suburban 382 lb-ft (518 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Yukon XL 382 lb-ft (518 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express 373 lb-ft (506 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana 373 lb-ft (506 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express Cutaway 373 lb-ft (506 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana Cutaway 373 lb-ft (506 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet GMC Cab Chassis 380 lb-ft (515 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Maximum Engine Speed: Silverado, Sierra, Suburban, Yukon XL = 6000 rpm Express, Savana = 5600 rpm
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS  
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Powder metal
Additional features: Electronic throttle control
E85 Flex Fuel
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Variable valve timing ( VVT )
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10K GVW
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10K GVW
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Suburban
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Sierra HD < 10K GVW
MYD-6L90
GMC Sierra HD > 10K GVW
MYD-6L90
GMC Yukon XL
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block


The L99 6.2L's cylinder block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The L99's cylinder heads feature rectangular intake ports that support exceptional airflow. They support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

Camshaft Phasing


The L99's valvetrain interfaces with a camshaft phaser to provide 30 degrees of phasing authority. This means the engine delivers variable valve timing to optimize performance and efficiency.

High-flow Intake Manifold With Acoustic Shell


The L99's intake manifold ports are designed to match the cylinder head. The composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional "skull cap" acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

Active Fuel Management


AFM temporarily deactivates four of the L99's cylinders under light load conditions and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. AFM is managed by the engine control module (ECM). When conditions are optimal, it automatically shuts down every second cylinder, according to firing order, during light-load operation. As a result, AFM delivers better fuel economy and lower operating costs.

58X Ignition System


The L99 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Overview

The L99 6.2L V-8 offers Active Fuel Management (AFM) cylinder deactivation technology and FlexFuel capability, allowing it to run on E85 ethanol. Active Fuel Management allows the engine to operate on only four cylinders during certain light-load driving conditions, saving the fuel normally used to drive all eight cylinders. Intake flow was improved over previous engines by straightening out and optimizing the flow path from the intake manifold into the cylinder heads, while the exhaust ports are also designed for greater flow. The engine's efficiency also optimizes emissions performance. The L99 also offers camshaft phasing.

Type: 6.2L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 6162cc (376 ci)
Engine Orientation: L=Longitudinal, T=Transverse L
Compression ratio: 10.4:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: St Catharines, Ontario
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 103.25 x 92 mm
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Bore Area: ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 669.82
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel Type: Premium fuel recommended, not required
Maximum Engine Speed: 6200 RPM
Engine Redline: 6000 RPM
Engine Mass: TBD
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: GMNA Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Camaro SS 400 hp ( 298 kW ) @ 5900 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: GMNA Torque: lb-ft ( Nm )
Chevrolet Camaro SS 410 lb-ft ( 556 Nm ) @ 4300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Forged powder metal
Additional features: Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
Active Fuel Management
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Chevrolet Camaro SS (Coupe, Convertible) Transmission
MYC-6L80

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L96 quiet and smooth.

The L96 6.0L also features a heavy-duty timing chain developed expressly for quiet operation. The chain, which connects the camshaft and crankshaft, is validated for 200,000 miles of operation and fitted with a leaf-spring-type dampener.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 6.0L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. They're derived from the high-performance cylinder heads that were used on the "C5" Chevrolet Corvette Z06 and support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

Camshaft Phasing


The 6.0L features variable valve timing, maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions. At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, allowing exceptionally smooth idling. Under other conditions, the phaser adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, drivability and fuel economy. At high rpm's it may retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm's it can advance timing to increase torque. Under light loads, it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer emissions in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

Quiet Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast nodular iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds are fitted with new triple-layer heat shields fabricated from stainless steel and insulating material. The shields limit heat transfer from the engine to the engine bay, allowing the 6.0L to reach optimal operating temperature more quickly, yet reducing heat in the engine compartment once that temperature is achieved.

58X Ignition System


The L96 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Overview

The Vortec 6.0L V-8, LC8 is a dedicated CNG (compressed natural gas) and LPG (liquid petroleum gas, vans only) version of the L96 engine. The 6.0L's balance of performance and efficiency is great airflow throughout. Intake flow was improved over previous engines by straightening out and optimizing the flow path from the intake manifold into the cylinder heads, while the exhaust ports are also designed for greater flow. The engine's efficiency also optimizes emissions performance.

The 6.0L is powerful, but delivers exceptional refinement to go with great strength. Quiet features built into the engine are complemented by an improved engine cradle and mounting system. These help reduce vibrations transmitted through the chassis and into the passenger compartment.

Description: 6.0L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Type: V-8
Displacement: 5967cc (364 ci)
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 9.7:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder: 2
Assembly site: Romulus, MI
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 101.6 x 92 mm
Bore Center (mm): 111.76
Fuel system: Sequential Fuel Injection
Fuel type: Applications:
Regular Unleaded Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10,000 lbs
GMC Sierra HD < 10,000 lbs
Chevrolet Express ( Cutaway )
GMC Savana ( Cutaway )
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10,000 lbs
GMC Sierra HD < 10,000 lbs
Chevrolet Express ( Cargo, Cutaway )
GMC Savana ( Cargo, Cutaway )
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Chevrolet Express ( Cargo, Cutaway )
GMC Savana ( Cargo, Cutaway )
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Silverado HD Gasoline
GMC Sierra HD Gasoline
360 hp ( 268 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express Gasoline
GMC Savana Gasoline
342 hp ( 255 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD CNG
GMC Sierra HD CNG
301 hp ( 225 kW ) @ 5000 rpm SAE Net
Chevrolet Express CNG
GMC Savana CNG
282 hp ( 210 kW ) @ 4800 rpm SAE Net
Chevrolet Express LPG
GMC Savana LPG
332 hp ( 248 kW ) @ 4800 rpm SAE Net
Applications: Torque: lb-ft ( Nm )
Chevrolet Silverado HD Gasoline
GMC Sierra HD Gasoline
380 lb-ft ( 515 Nm ) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express Gasoline
GMC Savana Gasoline
373 lb-ft ( 506 Nm ) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD CNG
GMC Sierra HD CNG
333 lb-ft ( 452 Nm ) @ 4200 rpm SAE Net
Chevrolet Express CNG
GMC Savana CNG
320 lb-ft ( 434 Nm ) @ 4400 rpm SAE Net
Chevrolet Express LPG
GMC Savana LPG
370 lb-ft ( 501 Nm ) @ 4400 rpm SAE Net
Maximum Engine Speed: Silverado, Sierra = 6000 rpm
Express, Savana = 5600 rpm
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast iron
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Powder metal
Additional features: Electronic throttle control
Unique exhaust valves, intake and exhaust valve seats for CNG/LPG durability
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Variable valve timing ( VVT )
Chevrolet Express LPG (Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express CNG (Cargo, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10K GVW Bi-Fuel (CNG) Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10K GVW Bi-Fuel (CNG) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana CNG (Cargo, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana LPG (Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Sierra HD > 10K GVW Bi-Fuel (CNG) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Sierra HD < 10K GVW Bi-Fuel (CNG) Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the LC9 quiet and smooth.

The LC9 5.3L also features a heavy-duty timing chain developed expressly for quiet operation. The chain, which connects the camshaft and crankshaft, is validated for 200,000 miles of operation and fitted with a leaf-spring-type dampener.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 5.3L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. They support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

Camshaft Phasing


The 5.3L features variable valve timing, maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions. At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, allowing exceptionally smooth idling. Under other conditions, the phaser adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, drivability and fuel economy. At high rpm's it may retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm's it can advance timing to increase torque. Under light loads, it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gases during the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Active Fuel Management


GM's Active Fuel Management technology increases fuel economy approximately 6 percent under the federal government's required testing procedure and potentially more in certain real-world driving conditions. AFM temporarily deactivates four of the LC9's cylinders under light load conditions and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds, and is virtually indiscernible to most drivers.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


GM has led the industry in applying electronic throttle control (ETC). With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. ETC delivers a number of benefits to the customer.

Quiet Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast nodular iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds are fitted with new triple-layer heat shields fabricated from stainless steel and insulating material. The shields limit heat transfer from the engine to the engine bay, allowing the 5.3L to reach optimal operating temperature more quickly, yet reducing heat in the engine compartment once that temperature is achieved.

58X Ignition System


The LC9 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Overview

The Vortec 5.3L V-8 (LC9) is a technically advanced small-block V-8 engine that delivers a great balance of power, torque and efficiency. Variable valve timing helps the 5.3L optimize performance, efficiency and emissions, while GM's Active Fuel Management cylinder deactivating technology helps improve fuel economy in certain light-load driving conditions.

The 5.3L is powerful, but delivers exceptional refinement to go with great strength. Quiet features built into the engine are complemented by an improved engine cradle and mounting system. These help reduce vibrations transmitted through the chassis and into the passenger compartment.

Type: 5.3L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 5328cc (325 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 9.6:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Romulus, MI and Silao, Mexico
Valve lifters: hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x Stroke: 96.01 x 92mm
Fuel system: sequential fuel injection
Fuel type: Applications:
Regular unleaded and E85 Flex Fuel All listed models
Maximum Engine Speed: 6000 RPM
Emissions controls: catalytic converter
three-way catalyst
positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Suburban
GMC Yukon XL
320 hp ( 239 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( gasoline as tested )
GMC Yukon XFE 326 hp ( 243 kW ) @ 5300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( E85 Flex Fuel as tested )
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Suburban
GMC Yukon XL
335 lb-ft ( 454 Nm ) @ 4000 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( gasoline as tested )
GMC Yukon XFE 348 lb-ft ( 472 Nm ) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( E85 Flex fuel as tested )
MATERIALS
Block: cast aluminum
Cylinder head: cast aluminum
Intake manifold: composite
Exhaust manifold: cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: powder Metal
Crankshaft: cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: hollow steel
Connecting rods: powder metal
Additional features: Active Fuel ManagementTM
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
E85 Flex Fuel
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Chevrolet Suburban (4WD)
MYC-6L80
GMC Yukon XL (4WD)
MYC-6L80

Optimized Piston Skirt


The Ecotec 2.4L (LE9) features pistons with a slight barrel shape, which helps smooth the glide through the cylinders and reduce lateral movement. It results in quieter – especially on cold starts – and smoother operation. The Ecotec 2.4L's pistons use lightweight aluminum pistons, for less reciprocating mass inside the engine that enhances efficiency, decreases vibration and bolsters the feeling of performance as rpm increases.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. Continuously variable valve timing optimizes the engine's turbocharging system by adjusting valve timing at lower rpm for improved turbo response and greater torque delivery.

Cam phasing allows an outstanding balance of smooth torque delivery over a broad rpm range, high specific output and good specific fuel consumption. Cam phasing also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

The Ecotec 2.4L camshafts feature 4X timing reluctors with digital sensors. This state-of-the-art control system allows the ECM to accurately measure and adjust valve timing, with consistent performance over the engine's anticipated useful life.

Electronic Throttle Control


GM has led the industry in applying electronic throttle control (ETC). With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel, composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable, biodegradable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Revised Oil Pump/Front Cover


The engine front covers incorporate a more efficient "goosehead"-port oil pump design, which reduces cavitation at higher engine speeds and results in a measurable reduction in noise, especially in cold-start and drive-away operation. The oil pump also includes a pressure-balanced oil relief valve, further improving the durability and reliability of the lubrication system, as well as a lower friction crank seal.

Oil Changes


Routine maintenance with the Ecotec 2.4L is limited to oil and filter changes; and with a paper filter replacement cartridge those are made as easy as possible. GM's industry-leading Oil Life System determines oil-change intervals according to real-world operation rather than a predetermined mileage interval.


ECOTEC 2.4L I-4 VVT (LE9)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

GM's versatile and technologically advanced Ecotec 2.4L (LE9) engine uses continuously variable valve timing to optimize performance, efficiency and emissions. It is also E85 flex-fuel-capable, allowing it to run on 100-precent gasoline, 100-percent E85 ethanol or any combination of the two.

Type: Ecotec 2.4L I-4
Displacement: 2384 cc (145 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal or Transverse
Compression ratio: 10.4:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site: Spring Hill, Tenn.
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x stroke: 88.00 x 98.00mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded, E85 Flex Fuel ( Chevrolet HHR and Malibu )
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Malibu 170 hp ( 127 kW ) @ 6200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( gasoline, as tested )
175 hp ( 130 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( E85 Flex Fuel, as tested )
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Malibu 158 lb-ft ( 214 Nm ) @ 5200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( gasoline, as tested )
170 lb-ft ( 230 Nm ) @ 4700 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( E85 Flex Fuel, as tested )
Maximum Engine Speed: 6750 rpm ( forward gears )
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Catalytic converter
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: High silicon molybdenum, cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Aluminum bedplate
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron
Camshaft: Cast nodular iron
Connecting rods: Forged steel
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
E85 Flex Fuel
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
Dual converter system
Chevrolet Malibu Transmission
MH8-6T40

Engine Block


The Ecotec 2.4L's sand-cast cylinder provides excellent structural support, as well as enabling greater control of noise, vibration and harshness.

The main bearing bulkheads, which support the crank bearing, as well as the cylinder bore walls, have been significantly strengthened to support increased engine loads.

Aluminum Pistons with Jet-Spray Cooling


The Ecotec 2.4L's pistons use lightweight aluminum pistons, for less reciprocating mass inside the engine that enhances efficiency, decreases vibration and bolsters the feeling of performance as rpm increases. Each piston has its own directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and operational noise, while also bolstering the engine's durability.

Cylinder Head


The Ecotec 2.4L has a SPM 319 aluminum cylinder head that is cast with advanced semi-permanent mold technology. This provides excellent strength, reduced machining and optimal port flow. The cylinder head is designed specifically for direct injection into each combustion chamber and includes premium valve seat, valve guide and valve materials. The cylinder head also has integral cast oil passages that feed a set of internal oil control valves that activate cam phasers, enabling variable valve timing.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. Continuously variable valve timing optimizes the engine's turbocharging system by adjusting valve timing at lower rpm for improved turbo response and greater torque delivery

Cam phasing allows an outstanding balance of smooth torque delivery over a broad rpm range, high specific output and good specific fuel consumption. Cam phasing also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. Direct injection also reduces emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, by about 25 percent.

With direct injection, the higher compression ratio is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber. This reduces the charge temperature and lessens the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber and also feature multiple outlets for best injection control.

Cam-Driven High-Pressure Fuel Pump


A high-pressure, cam-driven pump provides the fuel pressure required of the direct injection system in the Ecotec 2.4L. The engine-mounted fuel pump is augmented by a conventional electrically operated supply pump in the fuel tank.


ECOTEC 2.4L I-4 VVT DI (LEA)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

GM's versatile and technologically advanced Ecotec 2.4L engine is the standard engine in a wide range of vehicles. Direct injection technology helps it deliver horsepower and torque. It is also FlexFuel-capable.

With the Ecotec 2.4L's direct injection system, more power is made with less fuel, and the engine produces lower emissions. In fact, cold-start emissions are reduced by up to 25 percent. The engine delivers greater torque at lower rpm and builds it smoothly toward its peak at 4,900 rpm, for excellent, confident performance in all driving conditions.

Type: Ecotec 2.4L I-4 VVT DI
Displacement: 2384 cc (145 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) T
Compression ratio: 11.2:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Spring Hill, Tenn.
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 88.00 x 98.00 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 96.00 mm
Fuel system: Direct Injection
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded, E85 Capable
E85 Applications: Equinox, Terrain, Verano, Regal, Captiva in 2013 MY
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Captiva 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Equinox 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm SAE Certified
GMC Terrain 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Regal (Fleet Only) 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Verano CX, CXL 180 hp (134 kW) @ 6700 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Captiva 172 lb-ft. ( 233 Nm ) @ 4900 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Equinox 172 lb-ft. ( 233 Nm ) @ 4900 rpm SAE Certified
GMC Terrain 172 lb-ft. ( 233 Nm ) @ 4900 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Regal (Fleet Only) 172 lb-ft. ( 233 Nm ) @ 4900 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Verano CX, CXL 171 lb-ft. (232 Nm) @ 4900 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 7000 rpm ( forward gears )
Emissions controls: SAI system, PZEV capable
Evaporative system
Catalytic converter
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: High silicon molybdenum, cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Aluminum bedplate
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron
Camshaft: Cast nodular iron
Connecting rods: Forged steel
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
Buick Verano CX
MH8-6T40
Buick Verano CXL
MH8-6T40
Buick Regal (Fleet Only)
MH8-6T40
Chevrolet Captiva Sport (Fleet only) Transmission
MH7-6T45
Chevrolet Equinox Transmission
MH7-6T45
MHC-6T45-AWD
GMC Terrain Transmission
MH7-6T45
MHC-6T45 AWD

Aluminum Engine Block and Cylinder Heads


Engine block and cylinder heads are cast from A319 aluminum alloy. This aluminum-intensive construction means less weight and greater efficiency than conventional cast-iron engines – and less weight translates to improved vehicle fuel economy.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at lower temperature than conventional port injection.

Dual Overhead Cams with Four Valves per Cylinder and Silent Cam Drive


Four-valves-per-cylinder with inverted-tooth chain cam drive contributes to the smoothness and high output of the 3.0L V-6. Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine.

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing (VVT), or cam phasing, helps the 3.0L V-6 deliver optimal performance, efficiency and emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability.

Composite Intake Manifold


The upper intake manifold for the 3.0L V-6 is made from composite material and provides mass savings over an aluminum manifold, with a carefully designed structure that helps ensure quiet engine operation.

Fully Isolated Composite Camshaft Covers


The cam covers are made of thermoset, glass-filled polyester composite, a material that weighs less than the cast aluminum used on most premium engines and more effectively dampens noise.

Integrated Exhaust Manifold


The 3.0L engine features integrated exhaust manifolds with the cylinder heads, eliminating the need for separate exhaust manifolds. The benefits include reducing the mass of the engine for improved fuel economy and faster catalytic converter light off, resulting in reduced emissions.




Overview

The 3.0L V-6 VVT (LFW) is part of GM's acclaimed global family of High Feature V-6 engines, which were developed for applications around the world. The High Feature V-6 engines apply the most advanced automotive engine technology available, from state-of-the-art casting processes to full four-cam phasing. The 3.0L LFW engine delivers a market-leading balance of specific output, high torque over a broad rpm band, fuel economy, low emissions and first-rate noise, vibration and harshness control.

Type: 3.0L V6
Displacement: 2997 cc ( 183 ci )
Engine Orientation: L= Longitudinal T=Transverse L & T
Compression ratio: 11.7:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site's: Ramos Arizpe, Mexico, Port Melbourne, Australia, St. Catharines, Ontario
Valve lifters: Roller follower with hydraulic lash adjusters
Firing order: 1-2-3-4-5-6
Bore x Stroke: 89.0 x 80.3 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 103
Bore Area ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 373.27
Fuel system: DI
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded, E85 Capable
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Cadillac CTS Wagon 265 hp ( 198 kW ) @ 7000 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Cadillac CTS Wagon 220 lb-ft ( 298 Nm ) @ 5700 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Maximum Engine Speed: 7200 rpm
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) engine plant as shipped weight 154 / 339 ( estimate )
172 / 380 ( estimate ) automatic CTS
194 / 428 ( estimate ) manual CTS
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Internal exhaust gas recirculation ( EGR )
Dual close coupled catalytic converters plus underfloor converter
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Sand cast aluminum (319) with cast in iron bore liners
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum ( 319 semi permanent mold )
Intake manifold: Aluminum ( 319 Lower ), Composite ( Upper )
Main bearing caps: Sintered steel ( CU infiltrated )
Crankshaft: Forged steel ( 1038 V )
Camshaft: 1538 MV
Connecting rods: Sinter forged steel
Additional features: Four-cam continuously variable cam phasing
Pressure-actuated piston cooling jets
Torque-based engine management system
Secondary throat cut inlet ports
Direct injection fuel system
E85 capability in the Equinox, Terrain
High-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump with stainless steel fuel rails
Electronic Throttle Control w/ integrated Cruise Control
Structural front cover with damper plates removed
Iridium center electrode / platinum side wire tip spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Extended life EPDM accessory drive belt
7.7mm IT chain system for all HFV6 applications
Coil-on-plug ignition
Structural cast-aluminum oil pan with steel baffles
GM Oil Life System
5W30 Dexos 1
Cadillac CTS Wagon (Single Exhaust) Transmission
MYA-6L45

Aluminum Engine Block and Integral Oil Pan


The 3.6L V-6 VVT's engine block is cast from A319 aluminum alloy. This aluminum-intensive construction means less weight and greater efficiency than conventional cast-iron engines – and less weight translates to improved vehicle fuel economy. The sand-mold-cast block features strong cast-in iron bore liners, six-bolt main caps, and inter-bay breather vents. A cast aluminum oil pan is stiffened to improve powertrain rigidity and reduce vehicle vibration.

Rotating Assembly with Oil-Spray Cooled Pistons


The crankshaft is manufactured from forged steel, while the connecting rods are made of powdered metal that features a higher ratio of copper, which makes them stronger and enables them to be lighter.

The V-6 VVT engine family was developed with pressure-actuated oil squirters in all applications. The jets reduce piston temperature, which in turn allows the engine to produce more power without reducing long-term durability.

Integrated Cylinder Heads/Exhaust Manifolds


The LFX's new cylinder head design has a revised intake port design that enhances airflow to the combustion chambers. Larger-diameter intake valves are used in the heads and work in conjunction with new, longer-duration intake camshafts to provide the engine's boost in horsepower. By using larger valves and holding them open longer, more of the air is pulled into the combustion chamber, for a more powerful combustion. The exhaust manifold is incorporated with the cylinder head, which saves weight, reduces complexity and helps promote a quicker light off of the catalytic converter, which further helps reduce emissions.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, which are cut by about 25 percent.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Dual Overhead Cams with Four Valves per Cylinder and Silent Cam Drive


Four-valves-per-cylinder with inverted-tooth chain cam drive contributes to the smoothness and high output of the LFX. The engine incorporates a timing chain with an inverted tooth design. These smaller links engage at a lower impact speed, which decreases the noise generated. In conjunction with the smaller pitch chain, the number of teeth on the sprockets are increased, which increases the meshing frequency and further reduces noise and vibration.

Four valves per cylinder and a silent chain valvetrain contribute to both smoothness and high output. Four-cam phasing changes the timing of valve operation as operating conditions such as rpm and engine load vary.

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing (VVT), or cam phasing, helps the LFX deliver optimal performance and efficiency, and reduced emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. The system changes valve timing on the fly, maximizing engine performance for a variety of operating conditions. At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, enabling exceptionally smooth idle quality. Under other operating demands, cam phasing adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, driveability and fuel economy. At high rpm it might retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm it can advance timing to increase torque. Under light-load driving it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

Composite Intake Manifold and Fully Isolated Composite Camshaft Covers


The upper intake manifold for the LFX is made from composite material and provides mass savings over an aluminum manifold, with a carefully designed structure that helps ensure quiet engine operation. The surfaces on the cam covers are shaped to limit the broadcasting of undesirable noise, and the covers use isolating perimeter gaskets, as well as isolating radial lips around the tubes that accommodate the spark plugs. These effectively de-couple the covers from vibration generated in the block and engine during combustion. Acoustic dampening has also been added for additional NVH improvements.

Refinement, Durability and Maintenance


Additional changes incorporated in the LFX deliver greater refinement, quietness and durability, starting with revisions to the front cover. It was redesigned with additional support ribs on the backside and an additional fastener to improve noise and vibration characteristics. The cylinder block is modified slightly to accommodate the front cover's additional fastener.

Also, the camshafts feature new saddle-type caps for improved durability. Finally, the throttle body is updated with a new, digital throttle position feature that eliminates a previous mechanical contact for more trouble-free operation.











3.6L V-6 VVT DI (LFX)

3.6L V-6 VVT DI (LFX)

3.6L V-6 VVT DI (LFX)

3.6L V-6 VVT DI (LFX)

3.6L V-6 VVT DI (LFX)

3.6L V-6 VVT DI (LFX)

3.6L V-6 VVT DI (LFX)

3.6L V-6 VVT DI (LFX)

3.6L V-6 VVT DI (LFX)

3.6L V-6 VVT DI (LFX)

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Overview

A new, more powerful and more efficient version of the 3.6L direct-injected V-6 – known by its LFX engine code.

Compared to the engine it replaces, the new LFX 3.6L V-6 features:

  • New cylinder head design with integrated exhaust manifold
  • Improved intake port design and larger intake valves within the cylinder heads
  • Longer-duration intake camshafts
  • Composite intake manifold
  • New fuel pump and isolated fuel rail
  • New, optimized-flow fuel injectors
  • Structural front cover and cylinder block enhancements
  • Stronger and lighter-weight connecting rods
  • Camshaft cap and throttle body design enhancements
  • E85 ethanol capability

The changes to the 3.6L V-6 represent greater refinements to an already well-balanced package, including the use of new, lighter-weight components and enhancements designed to improve performance, efficiency and durability.

Type: 3.6L V6
Displacement: 3564 cc ( 217 ci )
Engine Orientation: L= Longitudinal T=Transverse L & T
Compression ratio: 11.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site/s: St. Catharines, ON, Flint, MI, Melbourne, Australia and Ramos Arizpe, MX
Valve lifters: Roller follower with hydraulic lash adjusters
Firing order: 1-2-3-4-5-6
Bore x Stroke: 94.0 x 85.6 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 103
Bore Area ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 416.37
Fuel system: DI
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded, E85 Capable
E85 Applications: "Impala Limited PPV, Impala Limited Fleet (except PZEV), Caprice PPV, Lacrosse, Equinox, Terrain,
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Camaro (Cpe, Conv.) 323 hp (241kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Caprice Police Patrol Vehicle PPV 301 hp (225kW) @ 6700 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala Limited PPV 302 hp (225kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala 305 hp (227kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala Limited (Fleet Only) 300 hp (224kW) @ 6500 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Equinox 301 hp (225kW) @ 6500 SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS Coupe, Wagon 318 hp (237kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS Sedan 321 hp (239kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Cadillac SRX 308 hp (230kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Cadillac XTS 305 hp (227kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Cadillac ATS 321 hp (239kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Buick LaCrosse 304 hp (226kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
GMC Terrain 301 hp (225kW) @ 6500 SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Camaro (Cpe, Conv.) 278 lb-ft. (377Nm) @ 4800 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Caprice Police Patrol Vehicle PPV 265 lb-ft. (359Nm) @ 4800 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala Limited PPV 262 lb-ft. (355Nm) @ 5300 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala 264 lb-ft. (358Nm) @ 5200 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala Limited (Fleet Only) 262 lb-ft. (355Nm) @ 5300 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Equinox 272 lb-ft. (369Nm) @ 4800 SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS Coupe, Wagon 275 lb-ft. (373Nm) @ 4900 SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS Sedan 275 lb-ft. (373Nm) @ 4800 SAE Certified
Cadillac SRX 265 lb-ft. (359Nm) @ 2400 SAE Certified
Cadillac XTS 264 lb-ft. (358Nm) @ 5200 SAE Certified
Cadillac ATS 275 lb-ft. (373Nm) @ 4800 SAE Certified
Buick LaCrosse 264 lb-ft. (358Nm) @ 5300 SAE Certified
GMC Terrain 272 lb-ft. (369Nm) @ 4800 SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 7200 rpm
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) engine plant as shipped weight 158 / 348 ( estimate )
Emissions controls Evaporative system
Internal exhaust gas recirculation ( EGR )
Dual close coupled converters
Supplemental Air Injection PZEV (Impala) only
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Sand cast aluminum (319) with cast in iron bore liners
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum ( 319 semi permanent mold )
Intake manifold: Aluminum ( 319 Lower ), Composite ( Upper )
Main bearing caps: Sintered steel ( CU infiltrated )
Crankshaft: Hardened Forged steel (1538 MV )
Camshaft: Cast iron
Connecting rods: Sinter forged steel
Additional features: Four-cam continuously variable cam phasing
Pressure-actuated piston cooling jets
Torque-based engine management system
Secondary throat cut inlet ports
Direct injection fuel system
High-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump with stainless steel fuel rails
Electronic Throttle Control w/ integrated Cruise Control
Structural front cover with damper plates removed
Iridium center electrode / platinum side wire tip spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Extended life EPDM accessory drive belt
7.7mm IT chain system for all HFV6 applications
Coil-on-plug ignition
Structural cast-aluminum oil pan with steel baffles
GM Oil Life System
5W30 Dexos oil












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Buick LaCrosse Transmission
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
M7W-6T70-CU
Cadillac ATS Sedan Transmission
MYA-6L45
Cadillac CTS (Coupe, Wagon) Transmission
MYA-6L45
Cadillac CTS Sedan Transmission
MGG-TL-80SN
Cadillac SRX
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
M7W-6T70-CU
Cadillac XTS
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
M7W-6T70 CU
Cadillac XTS Professional Vehicle
M7V-6T75 CU
Chevrolet Camaro (Cpe. Conv.) Transmission
MYB-6L50
MV5-M6-AY6
Chevrolet Equinox
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
M7W-6T70 CU
Chevrolet Caprice PPV
MYA-6L45
Chevrolet Impala
M7W-6T70 CU
Chevrolet Impala Limited PPV
MH2-6T70
Chevrolet Impala Limited (Fleet Only)
MH2-6T70
GMC Terrain Transmission
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
M7W-6T70-CU

Engine Block


The Ecotec 2.0L turbo sand-cast cylinder block is a superior refinement of previous Ecotec engine block castings. It is dimensionally similar with previous Ecotec turbo block variants, while providing improved structural support, as well as enabling greater control of noise, vibration and harshness.

Rotocast Aluminum Cylinder Head with Sodium Filled Exhaust Valves


The Ecotec 2.0L turbo's A356 aluminum cylinder head is cast using a Rotocast process for high strength, reduced machining and improved port flow. The head is also designed specifically for direct injection. The head uses stainless steel intake valves that are nitrided for improved durability and undercut to improve flow and reduce weight. The exhaust valves have sodium-filled stems that promote valve cooling.

Performance was the priority with the Ecotec 2.0L turbo, so the exhaust manifold mounted to the cylinder head is made of cast stainless steel. It is extremely durable and delivers exceptional airflow qualities.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. Continuously variable valve timing optimizes the engine's turbocharging system by adjusting valve timing at lower rpm for improved turbo response and greater torque delivery.

Cam phasing allows an outstanding balance of smooth torque delivery over a broad rpm range, high specific output and good specific fuel consumption. Cam phasing also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. Direct injection also reduces emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, by about 25 percent.

With direct injection, the higher compression ratio is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber. This reduces the charge temperature and lessens the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber and also feature multiple outlets for best injection control.

Cam-Driven High-Pressure Fuel Pump


A high-pressure, cam-driven pump provides the fuel pressure required of the Ecotec 2.0L turbo's direct injection system. The engine-mounted fuel pump is augmented by a conventional electrically operated supply pump in the fuel tank.

Twin-Scroll Turbocharger


An electronically controlled turbocharger with a unique twin-scroll design is used to increase power in the Ecotec 2.0L turbo. The turbocharger generates maximum boost of about 20 psi. Because direct injection cools the intake process compared to port injection, it allows the Ecotec 2.0L turbo to safely operate at higher boost and a relatively higher compression than a conventional turbo engine, increasing both output and efficiency.

Air-to-Air Intercooler


An intake charge cooler enhances the power-increasing benefits of the turbocharging system. The Ecotec 2.0L turbo's air-to-air intercooler draws fresh air through a heat exchanger to reduce the temperature of compressed air that's forced through the intake system by the turbocharger.

Cam-Driven Vacuum Pump


A cam-driven vacuum pump ensures the availability of vacuum under all conditions, especially under boost, when the engine produces the opposite of vacuum. The pump is mounted at the rear of the cylinder head and is driven by the exhaust camshaft via a flexible coupling.



Overview

The Ecotec 2.0L turbo is tuned to deliver unique performance, efficiency and quietness. The Ecotec 2.0L turbo's development applied the best practices of technical centers in Europe and North America. It has been subjected to one of the toughest, most comprehensive validation processes ever at GM, which included millions of miles of real-world road testing in a broad range of climates and environments. The result is a powerful and efficient engine that delivers smoothness and quietness.

Type: 2.0L I-4 Turbo
Displacement: 1998 cc ( 122 ci )
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) L
Compression ratio: 9.2:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Spring Hill, Tennesee
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1-3-4-2
Bore x Stroke: 86.00 x 86.00
Fuel system: Direct Injection
Fuel Type: Premium recommended, not required. E85 Capable.
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Buick Verano 250 hp (187kW) @ 5300 RPM SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Buick Verano 260 lb-ft (353Nm) @ 2000 RPM SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6350 rpm ( forward gears )
Emissions controls: Three-way catalyst, Positive Crankcase Ventilation, Evaporative System
MATERIALS
Block: 319 Aluminum
Cylinder head: Semi-permanent-mold A356-T6 Aluminum cylinder head
Intake manifold: Aluminum
Exhaust manifold: Cast stainless steel
Crankshaft: Forged steel
Camshaft: Cast nodular iron
Connecting rods: Forged steel
Additional features: DI ( direct injection )
Dual-scroll turbocharger
Dual CVCP ( continuously variable cam phasing )
Sodium-filled Iconel exhaust valves
Aluminum pistons with jet-spray cooling
Forged Powdered Metal (PM) connecting rods
Forged Steel crankshaft
Semi-permanent-mold 356 Al cylinder head
Variable pressure fuel rail ( 50-150 bar )
Stronger block bulkhead and deeper water jacket
Coil-on-plug ignition
Direct injection high-pressure multi hole injectors
58x engine position sensing
Stainless steel fuel system components
Dual converter system
Cam driven high pressure fuel pump
Mechanical brake vacuum pump
Buick Verano CXL Transmission
MHK-6T50
MYJ-FWD-F40-6-FWD

Aluminum Engine Block & Cylinder Heads


The 3.6L V-6 VVT's engine block and cylinder heads are cast from A319 aluminum alloy. This aluminum-intensive construction means less weight and greater efficiency than conventional cast-iron engines – and less weight translates to improved vehicle fuel economy. The sand-mold-cast block features strong cast-in iron bore liners, six-bolt main caps, and inter-bay breather vents.

Rotating Assembly with Oil-Spray Cooled Pistons


The crankshaft is manufactured from forged steel and the connecting rods are a sinter forging, as used on other 3.6L V-6 VVT engines. The pistons are made of lightweight cast aluminum and feature a friction-reducing polymer coating on the skirts, as well as fully floating wrist pins, which also help reduce friction. Less weight in the pistons means less reciprocating mass in the engine, which in turn means less inertia and greater operating efficiency.

The V-6 VVT engine family was developed with pressure-actuated oil squirters in all applications. The jets reduce piston temperature, which in turn allows the engine to produce more power without reducing long-term durability.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, which are cut by about 25 percent.

High-Pressure Engine-Driven Fuel Pump


An engine-driven high-pressure pump supplies fuel to the injectors to overcome the higher pressures inside the combustion chamber, as well as supply the multiple injection points of the direct injection nozzles. This variable-pressure high-pressure pump feeds a high-strength stainless steel fuel rail attached to the injectors.

Dual Overhead Cams with Four Valves per Cylinder and Silent Cam Drive


Four-valves-per-cylinder with inverted-tooth chain cam drive contributes to the smoothness and high output of the LFX. The engine incorporates a timing chain with an inverted tooth design. These smaller links engage at a lower impact speed, which decreases the noise generated. In conjunction with the smaller pitch chain, the number of teeth on the sprockets are increased, which increases the meshing frequency and further reduces noise and vibration.

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing (VVT), or cam phasing, helps the 3.6L V-6 deliver optimal performance and efficiency, and reduced emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability.

Composite Intake Manifold and Fully Isolated Composite Camshaft Covers


The upper intake manifold for the 3.6L V-6 is made from composite material and provides mass savings over an aluminum manifold, with a carefully designed structure that helps ensure quiet engine operation.



Overview

The 3.6L V-6 VVT (LLT) is part of GM's global family of high-feature V-6 , it applies the most advanced automotive engine technology available, from state-of-the-art casting processes to full four-cam phasing to ultra-fast data processing and torque-based engine management.

The 3.6L VVT DI delivers a market-leading balance of good specific output, high torque over a broad rpm band, fuel economy, low emissions and first-rate noise, vibration and harshness control, with exclusive durability enhancing features and very low maintenance.

Type: 3.6L V-6
Displacement: 3564cc ( 217 ci )
Engine Orientation: L= Longitudinal T=Transverse L
Compression ratio: 11.3:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly sites: St. Catharines, Ontario
Flint Engine South, Flint Mi.
Ramos Arizpe, Mexico
Melbourne, Australia
Valve lifters: Roller follower with hydraulic lash adjusters
Firing order: 1-2-3-4-5-6
Bore x stroke: 94 x 85.6 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 103
Bore Area ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 416.39
Fuel system: DI
Fuel Type: Regular Unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Buick Enclave ( with dual exhaust ) 288 hp ( 215 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Traverse ( with dual exhaust ) 288 hp ( 215 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Traverse ( with single exhaust ) 281 hp ( 210 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Acadia ( with dual exhaust ) 288 hp ( 215 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Buick Enclave ( with dual exhaust ) 270 lb-ft ( 366 Nm ) @ 3400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Traverse ( with dual exhaust ) 270 lb-ft ( 366 Nm ) @ 3400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Traverse ( with single exhaust ) 266 lb-ft ( 361 Nm ) @ 3400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Acadia ( with dual exhaust ) 270 lb-ft ( 366 Nm ) @ 3400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
   
Maximum Engine Speed: 6700 rpm
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) engine plant as shipped weight 164 / 361 (estimate) Acadia, Enclave, Traverse
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Dual catalytic converters
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS  
Block: Sand cast aluminum (319) with cast in iron bore liners
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum ( 319 semi permanent mold )
Intake manifold: Aluminum ( 319 Upper, and Lower )
Exhaust manifold: High-silicon moly cast iron
Main bearing caps: Sintered steel ( CU infiltrated )
Crankshaft: Forged steel ( 1038 V )
Camshaft: Cast nodular iron
Connecting rods: Sinter forged steel
Additional features: Four-cam continuously variable cam phasing
Internal exhaust gas recirculation ( EGR )
Pressure-actuated piston cooling jets
Torque-based engine management system
Secondary throat cut inlet ports
Direct injection fuel system
High-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump with stainless steel fuel rails
Internal front cover damper plates
Cartridge style oil filter
Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Extended life accessory drive belts
7.7mm IT chain system for all HFV6 applications
Coil-on-plug ignition
Structural cast-aluminum oil pan with steel baffles
5W30 GF4 Mineral Oil
Synthetic Oil for Cadillac applications
Buick Enclave Transmission
M7X-6T75-AWD-CU
M7V-6T75-CU
Chevrolet Traverse Transmission
M7X-6T75-AWD-CU
M7V-6T75-CU
GMC Acadia Transmission
M7X-6T75-AWD-CU
M7V-6T75-CU

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the LMF quiet and smooth.

The LMF 5.3L also features a heavy-duty timing chain developed expressly for quiet operation. The chain, which connects the camshaft and crankshaft, is validated for 200,000 miles of operation and fitted with a leaf-spring-type dampener.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 5.3L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. They support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque. Large, 2.000-inch intake and 1.550-inch exhaust valves are used in the 356-T6 aluminum alloy heads, but are made of specific material that supports the load and durability requirements of a truck engine. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

Camshaft phasing


The 5.3L features variable valve timing, maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions. At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, allowing exceptionally smooth idling. Under other conditions, the phaser adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, drivability and fuel economy. At high rpm's it may retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm's it can advance timing to increase torque. Under light loads, it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

FlexFuel E85 Capability


E85 is a clean-burning alternative fuel made in the United States, composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is biodegradable and doesn't contaminate the water supply. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


GM has led the industry in applying electronic throttle control (ETC). With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. ETC delivers a number of benefits to the customer.

Quiet exhaust manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast nodular iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds are fitted with new triple-layer heat shields fabricated from stainless steel and insulating material. The shields limit heat transfer from the engine to the engine bay, allowing the 5.3L to reach optimal operating temperature more quickly, yet reducing heat in the engine compartment once that temperature is achieved.

58X Ignition System


The LMF has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Overview

The Vortec 5.3L V-8 (LMF) is a technically advanced small-block V-8 engine that delivers a great balance of power, torque and efficiency. The 5.3L is powerful, but delivers exceptional refinement to go with great strength. Quiet features built into the engine are complemented by an improved engine cradle and mounting system. These help reduce vibrations transmitted through the chassis and into the passenger compartment.

Type: 5.3L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 5328cc (325 ci)
Engine Orientation: L=Longitudinal T=Transverse L
Compression ratio: 9.6:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder: 2
Assembly site: Romulus, MI
St. Catharines, Ontario
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 96.01 x 92mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel Type: Applications:
Regular unleaded and E85 Flex Fuel All models listed
Maximum Engine Speed: 6000 RPM
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Express
GMC Savana
310 hp ( 231 kW ) @ 5200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Express
GMC Savanna
334 lb-ft ( 453 Nm ) @ 4500 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast iron
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Powder metal
Additional features: E85 Capable
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Chevrolet Express Transmission
M30-4L60E
GMC Savana Transmission
M30-4L60E

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the LMG quiet and smooth.

The LMG 5.3L also features a heavy-duty timing chain developed expressly for quiet operation. The chain, which connects the camshaft and crankshaft, is validated for 200,000 miles of operation and fitted with a leaf-spring-type dampener.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 5.3L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. They support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

Large, 2.000-inch intake and 1.550-inch exhaust valves are used in the 356-T6 aluminum alloy heads, but are made of specific material that supports the load and durability requirements of a truck engine. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

Camshaft Phasing


The 5.3L features variable valve timing, maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions. At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, allowing exceptionally smooth idling. Under other conditions, the phaser adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, drivability and fuel economy. At high rpm's it may retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm's it can advance timing to increase torque. Under light loads, it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Active Fuel Management


GM's Active Fuel Management technology increases fuel economy approximately 6 percent under the federal government's required testing procedure and potentially more in certain real-world driving conditions. AFM temporarily deactivates four of the LMG's cylinders under light load conditions and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds, and is virtually indiscernible to most drivers.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


GM has led the industry in applying electronic throttle control (ETC). With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. ETC delivers a number of benefits to the customer.

Quiet Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast nodular iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds are fitted with new triple-layer heat shields fabricated from stainless steel and insulating material. The shields limit heat transfer from the engine to the engine bay, allowing the 5.3L to reach optimal operating temperature more quickly, yet reducing heat in the engine compartment once that temperature is achieved.

58X Ignition System


The LMG has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Overview

The Vortec 5.3L V-8 (LMG) is a technically advanced small-block V-8 engine that delivers a great balance of power, torque and efficiency for full-size trucks and SUVs. Variable valve timing helps the 5.3L optimize performance and efficiency and reduce emissions, while GM's Active Fuel Management cylinder deactivating technology helps improve fuel economy in certain light-load driving conditions. It is also E85-capable. In all applications, the engine is matched with GM's Hydra-Matic 6L80 six-speed automatic transmission.

The 5.3L's balance of performance and efficiency is great airflow throughout. Intake flow was improved over previous engines by straightening out and optimizing the flow path from the intake manifold into the cylinder heads, while the exhaust ports are also designed for greater flow. The engine's efficiency also optimizes emissions performance.

Type: 5.3L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 5328cc (325 ci)
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 9.6:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Romulus, MI and Silao, Mexico
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x Stroke: 96.01 x 92mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel Type: Applications:
Regular unleaded and E85 Flex Fuel All listed models
Maximum Engine Speed: 6000 rpm
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Suburban
GMC Yukon XL
Chevrolet Tahoe
320 hp (239 kW) @ 5400 rpm SAE Certified
326 hp ( 243 kW ) @ 5300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( E85 Flex Fuel, as tested )
GMC Yukon 310 hp ( 231kW) @ 5400 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Suburban
GMC Yukon XL
Chevrolet Tahoe
335 lb.-ft ( 454 Nm) @ 4000 rpm SAE Certified
348 lb-ft ( 472 Nm ) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( E85 Flex Fuel, as tested )
GMC Yukon 334 lb.-ft (453 Nm) @ 4000 rpm SAE Certified
MATERIALS
Block: Cast iron
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Powder metal
Additional features: Active Fuel ManagementTM
E85 Flex Fuel
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Chevrolet Suburban
MYC-6L80
Chevrolet Tahoe
MYC-6L80
GMC Yukon, GMC Yukon XL
MYC-6L80

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The Duramax block features casting enhanced to support smoother and quieter engine operation. It uses a strong cast iron foundation known for its durability, with induction-hardened cylinder walls and five nodular iron main bearings. A die-cast aluminum lower crankcase strengthens the engine block and serves as the lower engine cover, while also reducing the engine's overall weight.

Working within the cylinder block is a robust rotating assembly that features a forged steel crankshaft, forged steel connecting rods and forged aluminum pistons. The crankshaft is surface-hardened by nitriding, a process widely acknowledged as the most effective means of limiting wear and ensuring durability.

Pistons


The pistons are redesigned without pin bushings to reduce reciprocating weight, which helps the engine rev quicker and respond more immediately to throttle changes. The connecting rods that are used with the pistons feature a smaller-diameter pin bore on the small end to support the strengthened pistons. Piston-cooling oil jets are located at the bottom of the cylinder bores and spray engine oil on the bottom of the pistons. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and operational noise, while also bolstering the engine's durability.

Cylinder Heads


The Duramax diesel features an aluminum cylinder head design, with six head bolts per cylinder and four valves per cylinder. The aluminum material of the heads helps reduce the engine's overall weight, while the six-bolt design provides exceptional head-clamping strength – a must in a high-compression, turbocharged application.

2000-Bar Fuel System with Piezo Injectors


The Duramax uses a common-rail direct injection fuel system. Piezo injectors allow a more precise metering of the fuel, especially for very small quantities of injected fuel, which leads to a smoother idle and lower combustion noise.

Variable Geometry Turbo charging System


A variable-vane turbocharger is employed on the Duramax 6.6L. With the variable-geometry turbocharger, the engine delivers more power with lower exhaust emissions and no decrease in overall fuel efficiency. The system uses self-adjusting turbine vanes and sophisticated electronic controls to automatically adjust boost pressure and exhaust backpressure.

Emissions and Particulate Control Technology


The Duramax diesel features the latest in emission control technology, making it the cleanest Duramax engine ever produced, with NOx emissions reduced by at least 63 percent in the LML version.

B20 Biodiesel Capability


The LML version of the Duramax 6.6L turbo diesel is capable of running on B20 biodiesel, a fuel composed of 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent conventional diesel. B20 helps lower carbon dioxide emissions and lessens dependence on petroleum. It is a domestically produced, renewable fuel made primarily of plant matter – mostly soybean oil



Overview

With nearly 1.3 million Duramax diesel engines in operation no other automaker has as much diesel engine development experience in meeting the demands of the heavy-duty truck customer as General Motors. The Duramax 6.6L turbo diesel engine is strong, powerful and efficient. Features such as common rail fuel injection and aluminum heads with a six-bolt-per-cylinder design has helped cement the Duramax's foundation years ago and continues to make the Duramax diesel a relevant product.

Type: ENGINE DIESEL, 8 CYL, 6.6L, DI, V8, TURBO, DURAMAX
Displacement: 6.6L (403 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 16.0:1
Valve configuration: OHV
valves per cylinder: 4 valves per cylinder
Assembly site: "DMAX" Moraine, Ohio
Valve lifters: Mechanical roller
Firing order: 1 - 2 - 7 - 8 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 3
Bore x stroke: 103 mm x 99 mm
Fuel system: direct injection diesel with high pressure common rail
Fuel Type: Ultra-low sulfur diesel & B20 Biodiesel
Emissions controls: Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
EGR cooling – bypass system(LML only)
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Intake throttle
   
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Silverado HD
GMC Sierra HD
397 Hp ( 294kW ) @ 3000 RPM SAE certified
 
Applications: Torque:lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Silverado HD
GMC Sierra HD
765 Ft-lb ( 1037Nm) at 1600 RPM
Maximum Engine Speed: 3000 rpm Silverado and Sierra (Heavy Duty), Express and Savana
MATERIALS  
Block: cast iron
Cylinder head: cast aluminum
Intake manifold: cast aluminum
Exhaust manifold: cast nodular iron with steel pipe extension
Main bearing caps: cast nodular iron
Crankshaft: forged steel
Camshaft: steel
Connecting rods: forged steel, stress fractured
Additional features: charge air cooling
Recommended oil-change interval: Per the computerized Oil Life System. Requires CJ-4 Engine Oil to Maximize Life.
Recommended coolant change interval: 5 Years or 150,000 Miles
Capacities  
Engine Oil (qt/ L) 10/9.5
Chevrolet Silverado HD Transmission
MW7-LCT 1000
GMC Sierra HD Transmission
MW7-LCT 1000

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The Duramax block features casting enhanced to support smoother and quieter engine operation. It uses a strong cast iron foundation known for its durability, with induction-hardened cylinder walls and five nodular iron main bearings. A die-cast aluminum lower crankcase strengthens the engine block and serves as the lower engine cover, while also reducing the engine's overall weight.

Working within the cylinder block is a robust rotating assembly that features a forged steel crankshaft, forged steel connecting rods and forged aluminum pistons. The crankshaft is surface-hardened by nitriding, a process widely acknowledged as the most effective means of limiting wear and ensuring durability.

Pistons


The pistons are redesigned without pin bushings to reduce reciprocating weight, which helps the engine rev quicker and respond more immediately to throttle changes. The connecting rods that are used with the pistons feature a smaller-diameter pin bore on the small end to support the strengthened pistons. Piston-cooling oil jets are located at the bottom of the cylinder bores and spray engine oil on the bottom of the pistons. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and operational noise, while also bolstering the engine's durability.

Cylinder Heads


The Duramax diesel features an aluminum cylinder head design, with six head bolts per cylinder and four valves per cylinder. The aluminum material of the heads helps reduce the engine's overall weight, while the six-bolt design provides exceptional head-clamping strength – a must in a high-compression, turbocharged application.

2000-Bar Fuel System with Piezo Injectors


The Duramax uses a common-rail direct injection fuel system. Piezo injectors allow a more precise metering of the fuel, especially for very small quantities of injected fuel, which leads to a smoother idle and lower combustion noise.

Variable Geometry Turbo charging System


A variable-vane turbocharger is employed on the Duramax 6.6L. With the variable-geometry turbocharger, the engine delivers more power with lower exhaust emissions and no decrease in overall fuel efficiency. The system uses self-adjusting turbine vanes and sophisticated electronic controls to automatically adjust boost pressure and exhaust backpressure.

Emissions and Particulate Control Technology


The Duramax diesel features the latest in emission control technology, making it the cleanest Duramax engine ever produced, with NOx emissions reduced by at least 63 percent in the LML version.

B20 Biodiesel Capability


The LML version of the Duramax 6.6L turbo diesel is capable of running on B20 biodiesel, a fuel composed of 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent conventional diesel. B20 helps lower carbon dioxide emissions and lessens dependence on petroleum. It is a domestically produced, renewable fuel made primarily of plant matter – mostly soybean oil



Overview

With nearly 1.3 million Duramax diesel engines in operation no other automaker has as much diesel engine development experience in meeting the demands of the heavy-duty truck customer as General Motors. The Duramax 6.6L turbo diesel engine is strong, powerful and efficient. Features such as common rail fuel injection and aluminum heads with a six-bolt-per-cylinder design has helped cement the Duramax's foundation years ago and continues to make the Duramax diesel a relevant product.

Type: "ENGINE DIESEL, 8 CYL, 6.6L, DI, V8, TURBO, DURAMAX
Displacement: 6.6L (403 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 16.0:1
Valve configuration: OHV
Valves per cylinder 4 valves per cylinder
Assembly site/s: "DMAX" Moraine, Ohio
Valve lifters: Mechanical roller
Firing order: 1 - 2 - 7 - 8 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 3
Bore x Stroke: 103 mm x 99 mm
Fuel system: direct injection diesel with high pressure common rail
Fuel Type: Ultra-low sulfur diesel & B20 Biodiesel
Emissions controls: Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Intake throttle
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Express
GMC Savana
260 hp (194 kW) @ 3100 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Express
GMC Savana
525 lb-ft. (712 Nm) @ 1600 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 3100 rpm Silverado and Sierra (Heavy Duty), Express and Savana
MATERIALS
Block: cast iron
Cylinder head: cast aluminum
Intake manifold: cast aluminum
Exhaust manifold: cast nodular iron with steel pipe extension
Main bearing caps: cast nodular iron
Crankshaft: forged steel
Camshaft: steel
Connecting rods: forged steel, stress fractured
Additional features: charge air cooling
Recommended oil-change interval: Per the computerized Oil Life System. Requires CJ-4 Engine Oil to Maximize Life.
Recommended coolant change interval: 5 Years or 150,000 Miles
Capacities
Engine Oil (qt/ L) 10/9.5
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain.

Within the LS3 block is a durable rotating assembly that includes a steel crankshaft and connecting rods, as well as high-strength, aluminum-alloy pistons. The flat-top pistons are also lightweight, which enhances high-rpm performance, as they enable the engine to rev quicker.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The LS3's cylinder heads feature rectangular intake ports that support exceptional airflow. They support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

High-Flow Intake Manifold with Acoustic Shell


The LS3's intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head. The composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional "skull cap" acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise.

Dry Sump-Style Oiling System with Manual Transmission


Corvette models equipped with a manual transmission feature a dry sump oiling system which promotes exceptional lubrication system performance during extended high-rpm use under high cornering loads.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The LS3 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.





Overview

The 6.2L LS3 is a direct descendant of the original small-block, sharing key dimensions. As with other members of the small-block engine family, one of the enablers of the LS3's balance of performance and efficiency is great airflow throughout. Intake flow was improved over previous engines by straightening out and optimizing the flow path from the intake manifold into the cylinder heads, while the exhaust ports are also designed for greater flow. The engine's efficiency also provides an optimum reduction in emissions.

Type: 6.2L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 6162cc (376.0 ci)
Compression ratio: 10.7:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Silao, Mexico
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x Stroke: 103.25 x 92mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel type: Premium fuel recommended, not required
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Engine Mass ( kg/lbs ) 183/403
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Camaro SS 426 hp ( 318 kW ) @ 5900 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Perfomance Sedan SS 415 hp ( 309 kW) @ 5900 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Camaro SS 420 lb-ft ( 569 Nm ) @ 4600 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Perfomance Sedan SS 415 lb-ft ( 563 Nm ) @ 4600 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6600 rpm
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Forged powder metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Oil level sensor
Oil Life System
Chevrolet Camaro SS (Coupe, Convertible) Transmission
M10-TR6060
MYC-6L80
Chevrolet SS Performance Sedan Transmission
MYC-6L80
Chevrolet Camaro SS Coupe Transmission
M10-TR6060

Cylinder Block


The LS7's Gen-IV cylinder block shares two key design elements with GM's original small-block V-8: a 90-degree cylinder angle and 4.400-inch bore centers. The LS7 uses unique pressed-in cast iron cylinder liners to accommodate the largest cylinders bores in the engine family. The LS7 block also features very durable, doweled-in, forged-steel main bearing caps, which hold the balanced, forged-steel crankshaft in place and reduce crank flex.

The Gen IV block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain.

Deck Plate Honing


A precision machining process typically reserved for high-performance engines, is used on the LS7 cylinder block to maximize engine life, reduce friction between engine parts and increase horsepower. It is advantageous in applications where cylinder head pressures are greater than average – such as with a supercharged engine – to ensure cylinder sealing and prevent scuffing of the piston against the bore wall. In the LS7 engine, this means improved bore life and ring sealing. True bores and better sealing are keys to optimizing power.

Titanium Connecting Rods


Lightweight titanium connecting rods are used in the LS7 to reduce the pressure on the rod end bearings and the main bearings, and allow the bearings to be optimally sized for the least amount of friction. The lightweight rods are matched with pistons that feature tapered wrist pins to reduce weight. The piston rings are anodized to reduce blow-by and friction, while the skirts are coated with a polymer material to limit bore scuffing and reduce noise.

Racing-Derived Cylinder Heads


The LS7's large displacement would mean little in terms of horsepower if the engine could not draw in and then expel enough air to take advantage. To that end the LS7 is fitted with high-flow cylinder heads that are derived from racing heads first proven on the track with the Corvette Racing team. The heads feature fully CNC-machined intake, exhaust ports and 70cc combustion chambers to reduce airflow restrictions, while the high machining consistency of the machining procedure enable's the LS7's high, 11.0:1 compression ratio.

High-Flow Intake Manifold with Acoustic Shell


The LS7's intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head. The composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional "skull cap" acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise.

Dry Sump Oiling System


Corvette models equipped with a manual transmission feature a dry sump oiling system which promotes exceptional lubrication system performance during extended high-rpm use under high cornering loads.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The LS7 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

Hydroformed Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds are made of hydroformed stainless steel, which is lighter than cast iron, and feature a unique four-into-one collector that designed to maximize airflow. Exhaust pipes on the LS7-equipped Corvette Z06 are three-inches in diameter, compared to the 2.5-inch pipes on Corvettes built with the 6.0L LS2.





Overview

The LS7 is easily identified under the hood by red engine covers with black lettering. It shares the basic architecture of other Gen IV V-8 engines, but is the largest-displacement variant, featuring pressed-in steel cylinder liners to accommodate the engine's larger diameter, 4.125-inch (104.8 mm) cylinder bores. It also uses a racing-style dry-sump oiling system that helps ensure adequate oil pressure during high-load cornering.

Each LS7 is assembled by hand by a single builder at GM's unique Performance Build Center in Wixom, Michigan. The 100,000-square-foot facility weaves the best practices of low-volume niche manufacturers and the established quality and manufacturing standards at GM to ensure the highest-quality specialized engines.

Type: 7.0L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 7008 cc (427.6 ci)
Engine Orientation: L=Longitudinal T=Transverse L
Compression ratio: 11.0:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: P.B.C. Wixom, Mi.
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x Stroke: 104.8 X 101.6
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Bore Area: ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 689.75
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel type: Premium Fuel required
Engine Mass ( kg/lbs ) 206 / 454
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Camaro Z/28 505 hp (377kW) @ 6100 SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Camaro Z/28 481 lb.-ft. (652Nm) @ 4800 SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 7100 rpm
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Stainless Steel
Main bearing caps: Forged steel
Crankshaft: Forged 4140 steel
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Forged Titanium
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Titanium Intake Valves
Extended life coolant
Oil Life System
Chevrolet Camaro Z/28 (Coupe) Transmission
MM6-TR6060

Enhanced Cylinder Block


The 6.2L engine block used with the LS9 is cast from 319-T7 aluminum and fitted with cast-iron cylinder liners. It has been strengthened 20 percent compared to prior generations of this engine, by optimizing the size of the bulkhead "windows" to take advantage of material thickness in the bulkhead. The enlarged bulkhead windows also improve bay-to-bay breathing by managing airflow inside the engine more efficiently, thereby decreasing pumping loss, or reducing resistance to the pistons' downward movement.

The engine block was developed with the latest math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and it provides an exceptionally light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth cam-in-block engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration, and its aluminum construction reduces weight approximately 100 pounds compared to a conventional cast-iron cylinder block.

Deck Plate Honing


A precision machining process typically reserved for high-performance engines, is used on the LS9 cylinder block to maximize engine life, reduce friction between engine parts and increase horsepower. It is advantageous in applications where cylinder head pressures are greater than average – such as with a supercharged engine – to ensure cylinder sealing and prevent scuffing of the piston against the bore wall. In the LS9 engine, this means improved bore life and ring sealing. True bores and better sealing are keys to optimizing power.

Forged-Aluminum Pistons with Oil-Spray Cooling


The LS9's pistons are premium forged aluminum components, for a high-performance combination of low mass, high strength and durability. These are considerably lighter than conventional aluminum pistons, which translates to less reciprocating mass inside the engine. The LS9 also incorporates oil-spray piston cooling. Eight oil-squirting jets in the engine block drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The oil spray reduces piston temperature, promoting extreme output and long-term durability.

Lightweight Rotating Assembly with Titanium Connecting Rods


Within the LS9's cylinder block spins a balanced, dropped-forged micro-alloy steel crankshaft with a nine-bolt flange to mount the flywheel. Titanium connecting rods mate the crank with the pistons, for the ultimate combination of strength and light weight. The titanium rods weigh roughly 25 percent less than conventional iron or steel. They reduce pressure on both the rod-end bearings and main bearings, and allow the bearings to be optimally sized for the least amount of friction.

Refined Low-Overlap Camshaft


A refined camshaft helps balance the 6.2L LS9's remarkable output with silky, tractable low-rev operation. It camshaft operates the engine's valves and its design is crucial to both power and smoothness.

High-Flow Rotocast Cylinder Heads


The LS9 cylinder heads are manufactured with a unique rotocast method, which rotates the head mold as the molten alloy cools and essentially eliminates porosity, or microscopic pockets of air trapped in the casting. Rotocasting delivers a stronger part that helps maintain performance and structural integrity over the life of the engine.

Dual-Pressure/Center-Feed Fuel System


To ensure appropriate fueling in all conditions, the LS9 features a dual-pressure fuel system. It delivers about 36 psi (250 kPa) at idle and low speeds. Yet the electronic throttle management system can immediately increase fuel pressure to 87 psi (600 kPa) for sustained high-speed operation or wide-open throttle. The dual-pressure system reacts according to throttle application, and presents several advantages. It limits the energy used by the fuel pump at low speeds, for maximum efficiency, and it reduces operational noise.

The LS9 also employs a center-feed fuel rail that delivers gasoline to the center of the injector rail and each bank. This helps reduce fuel pressure variation among the injectors, as well as noise.

Direct-Mount Ignition Coils


The LS9's coil-on-plug ignition features advanced coils that are smaller and lighter than those used on previous V-8s. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.

Supercharger with Four-Lobe Rotors


State-of-the-art supercharging technology is the foundation of the LS9's remarkable performance. The supercharger is an air pump driven by the engine's crankshaft. It forces more air into the engine's combustion chambers than the engine could otherwise draw on its own. The increased volume of oxygen allows the engine to efficiently process more fuel, and thus generate more power.

Dual-Brick Air-to-Liquid Intercooler


An advanced intercooling system increases the 6.2L LS9's performance and extends its supercharger's benefits. The engine's charge cooler is integrated in the supercharger case just above the rotors, with two air-to-liquid cooling "bricks" that substantially lower the temperature of air used in the combustion process. Intercoolers are familiar features on supercharged and turbocharged engines. Similar in concept to an engine's radiator, intercoolers cool the air pumped by the charging device into the cylinders. Cooler air is denser air, which means more oxygen in a given volume, resulting in optimal combustion and more power. Traditionally, intercoolers look like small radiators mounted somewhere outside the engine, with air fed into the engine through a plumbing network.

Dry Sump-Style Oiling System


To ensure the 6.2L LS9 operates at peak, low-friction efficiency, and to promote durability during extended high-rpm use under high cornering loads, the engine is equipped with a racing-style dry sump-type lubrication system and dual-gerotor oil pump.

Stainless Steel Exhaust Manifolds with Close-Coupled Catalysts


The 6.2L LS9 exhaust manifolds are constructed of stainless steel and designed on the principle that low restriction and less pumping loss equals more horsepower and torque. Each manifold consists of four tubes hydroformed from 309 stainless steel. The manifolds are fitted with a pair of close-coupled catalytic converters that heat quickly, achieving light-off temperature and closed-loop operations in seconds.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The LS9 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

Performance Build Center


The LS9 is manufactured at the Performance Build Center.



Overview

The supercharged LS9 is the most powerful production engine GM has ever offered. It is the standard engine in the Corvette ZR1 and helps it achieve enviable performance benchmarks. It is civil at low speeds and remarkably tractable at all speeds. Percolating beneath the civil demeanor, however, is a deep well of power. An advanced, Gen IV supercharger with a unique four-lobe rotor design helps the LS9 produce its admirable, broad performance range.

The LS9 is assembled by hand by a single builder at GM's unique Performance Build Center in Wixom, Mich. The 100,000-square-foot facility weaves the best practices of low-volume niche manufacturers and the established quality and manufacturing standards at GM to ensure the highest-quality specialized engines.

Type: 6.2L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 6162 cc (376 ci)
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 9.1:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves (2 valves per cylinder)
Assembly site: Wixom, MI
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 103.25 x 92mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel Type: Premium required
Maximum Engine Speed: 6600 RPM
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Valves per cylinder 2
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Corvette ZR1 638 hp ( 476 kW ) @ 6500rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft ( Nm )
Chevrolet Corvette ZR1 604 lb-ft ( 819 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: A356-T6 rotocast cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Cast aluminum
Exhaust manifold: Stainless steel
Main bearing caps: Forged steel
Crankshaft: Forged steel
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Forged Titanium
Additional features: 2.3 L/rev Supercharger
Integrated dual coolant to air intercooler
Titanium inlet valve
Forged Pistons
Piston oil spray cooling
Hollow steel exhaust valve
Direct mount ignition coils
Corvette ZR1 Transmission
MH3-6L95M
ME2-6L95M

Enhanced Cylinder Block


The 6.2L engine block used with the LSA is cast from 319-T7 aluminum and fitted with cast-iron cylinder liners. Compared to previous blocks, it has been strengthened 20 percent by optimizing the size of the bulkhead "windows" to take advantage of material thickness in the bulkhead. The enlarged bulkhead windows also improve bay-to-bay breathing by managing airflow inside the engine more efficiently, thereby decreasing pumping loss, or reducing resistance to the pistons' downward movement.

The engine block was developed with the latest math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and it provides an exceptionally light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth cam-in-block engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration, and its aluminum construction reduces weight approximately 100 pounds compared to a conventional cast-iron cylinder block.

Deck Plate Honing


A precision machining process reserved for high-performance engines, is used on the LSA cylinder block to maximize engine life, reduce friction between engine parts and increase horsepower. It is advantageous in applications where cylinder head pressures are greater than average – such as with a supercharged engine – to ensure cylinder sealing and prevent scuffing of the piston against the bore wall. In the LSA engine, this means improved bore life and ring sealing. True bores and better sealing are keys to optimizing power.

Pistons with Oil-Spray Cooling


The LSA's pistons are aluminum-cast from a high-silicon alloy developed for its combination of strength and heat-management properties. Casting reduces noise-generating potential, compared to other high-performance piston materials, such as forged aluminum, and is specified when noise and vibration control is a priority. The hypereutectic pistons are also lighter than conventional steel, which translates to less reciprocating mass inside the engine. Less mass means greater efficiency, high-rpm capability and a feeling of immediate response as the engine builds rpm.

Lightweight Rotating Assembly


Within the LSA's cylinder block spins a balanced, dropped-forged steel crankshaft with an eight-bolt flange to mount the flywheel. The eight-bolt pattern increases clamping strength compared to naturally aspirated 6.2L V-8s, which use a six-bolt crank flange. Forged powder-metal connecting rods link the crankshaft and pistons. They are forged under extreme pressure from alloy metals reduced to powder, rather the melted to liquid, for a balance of low mass and high strength. They reduce pressure on both the rod-end bearings and main bearings, compared to conventional rods, and allow the bearings to be optimally sized for the least amount of friction.

Refined Low-Lift/Low-Overlap Camshaft


A refined camshaft helps balance the 6.2L LSA's high output with smooth, tractable low-rpm performance. The torque-enhancing benefits of the supercharger allowed engineers to develop a "softer," lower-lift camshaft for the LSA, compared to the typical high-rev, high-power exotic car engine. The result is smoother operation at idle and during low-speed driving.

High-Flow Rotocast Cylinder Heads


The LSA cylinder heads are manufactured with a unique rotocast method, which rotates the head mold as the molten alloy cools and essentially eliminates porosity, or microscopic pockets of air trapped in the casting. Rotocasting delivers a stronger part that helps maintain performance and structural integrity over the life of the engine.

Dual-Pressure/Center-Feed Fuel System


To ensure appropriate fueling in all conditions, the LSA features a dual-pressure fuel system. It delivers about 36 psi (250 kPa) at idle and low speeds. Yet the electronic throttle management system can immediately increase fuel pressure to 87 psi (600 kPa) for sustained high-speed operation or wide-open throttle. The dual-pressure system reacts according to throttle application, and presents several advantages. It limits the energy used by the fuel pump at low speeds, for maximum efficiency, and it reduces operational noise.

The LSA also employs a center-feed fuel rail that delivers gasoline to the center of the injector rail and each bank. This helps reduce fuel pressure variation among the injectors, as well as noise.

Direct-Mount Ignition Coils


The LSA's coil-on-plug ignition features advanced coils that are smaller and lighter than those used on previous V-8s. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.

Supercharger with Four-Lobe Rotors


State-of-the-art supercharging technology is the foundation of the LSA's remarkable performance. The supercharger is an air pump driven by the engine's crankshaft. It forces more air into the engine's combustion chambers than the engine could otherwise draw on its own. The increased volume of oxygen allows the engine to efficiently process more fuel, and thus generate more power.

Dual Brick Air-to-Liquid Intercooler


An advanced intercooling system increases the 6.2L LSA's performance and extends its supercharger's benefits. The engine's charge cooler is integrated in the supercharger case just above the rotors, with two air-to-liquid cooling "bricks" that substantially lower the temperature of air used in the combustion process. Intercoolers are familiar features on supercharged and turbocharged engines. Similar in concept to an engine's radiator, intercoolers cool the air pumped by the charging device into the cylinders. Cooler air is denser air, which means more oxygen in a given volume, resulting in optimal combustion and more power. Traditionally, intercoolers look like small radiators mounted somewhere outside the engine, with air fed into the engine through a plumbing network.

Upgraded Oiling System


To ensure peak, low-friction efficiency, and to promote durability during extended high-rpm operation, the LSA has a more powerful oil pump than the naturally aspirated 6.2L LS3. The oil pump capacity is increased to 33.8 gallons per minute and the LSA's six-quart oil pan is fitted with a liquid-to-air oil cooler.

Cast-Iron Exhaust Manifolds with Close-Coupled Catalysts


The 6.2L LSA exhaust manifolds are fabricated from a premium high-silicon, high-moly iron alloy. The material delivers excellent heat management properties, and the design ensures the high flow volume required of an engine with the LSA's capability. Immediately downstream, the exhaust manifolds are fitted with a pair of close-coupled catalytic converters that heat quickly, achieving light-off temperature and closed-loop operations in seconds.

58X Ignition System


The LSA has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.






Overview

More than sheer performance, the LSA balances great power with exceptional refinement. Everything from the pistons to the aesthetic engine cover was carefully selected and tuned to deliver quiet performance. An advanced, sixth-generation Eaton supercharger with high-twist four-lobe rotors is a large contributor to the engine's quiet high performance. It enables a broad power band with almost imperceptible operation.

GM engineers created 370 different power simulations to optimize the LSA. It has been validated beyond 100,000 miles and has accumulated more than 6,400 hours of dynamometer testing. During testing, it was run more than 270 consecutive hours at wide-open throttle without a failure, and it completed actual and simulated 24-hour track tests.

Type: 6.2L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 6162 cc (376 ci)
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 9.1:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves (2 valves per cylinder)
Assembly site: Silao, MX
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 103.25 x 92 mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel Type: Premium required
Maximum Engine Speed: 6200 RPM
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Valves per cylinder 2
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Cadillac CTSV 556 hp ( 415 kW ) @ 6100 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Camaro ZL1 580 hp (432 kW) @ 6100 SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft ( Nm )
Cadillac CTSV 551 lb-ft ( 747 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Camaro ZL1 556 lb-ft (745 Nm) @ 3800 SAE Certified
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: A356-T6 rotocast cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Cast aluminum
Exhaust manifold CTS: High silicon / high moly cast iron
Exhaust manifold Camaro: Cast stainless steel
Main bearing caps: Nodular Iron
Crankshaft: Forged steel
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Forged powder metal
Additional features: 1.9 L/rev Supercharger
Integrated single coolant to air intercooler
Piston oil spray cooling
Direct mount ignition coils
Cadillac CTS-V (Sedan, Coupe and Wagon) Transmission
MYD-6L90
MG9-TR6060
Camaro ZL1 (Coupe, Convertible) Transmission
MYD-6L90
MG9-TR6060

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The Vortec 4.3L features an iron cylinder block based on the small-block V-8 architecture. Inside the block, the rotating assembly consists of a strong iron crankshaft, lightweight aluminum pistons and cracked powder-metal connecting rods.

Electronic Direct Ignition System


A trio of ignition coils is mounted above the former location of the conventional distributor (a unique "stub" shaft is used to drive the oil pump). Each coil is directed by the engine's controller to fire two cylinders. The ignition system uses a 58X crankshaft-sensing reluctor wheel, similar to those used in GM's Gen IV V-8 engines.

Additional details


The Vortec 4.3L incorporates a number of features designed to optimize performance and durability, while helping keep down ownership costs. They include:

  • Machined water pump and specific gasket delivers better pump-to-block sealing
  • Cast rocker arms offer more precise tolerances
  • Low-permeable intake sealing system helps ensure minimal fuel emissions seeping out of the intake system
  • Three layers of insulated tubing for the exhaust manifolds helps reduce noise
  • Extended-life spark plugs are designed to go 100,000 miles (160,000 km) without the need for replacement
  • Extended-life Dex-Cool coolant maintains its cooling and corrosion-inhibiting properties for 150,000 miles (240,000 km)



4.3L V-6 (LU3)

4.3L V-6 (LU3)

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Overview

The Vortec 4.3L V-6's excellent torque, fuel efficiency, durability, low cost of ownership and steady improvement all contribute to its popularity as a base engine in GM's light-duty full-size trucks and vans. A counter-rotating balance shaft helps balance primary crank vibration, while the latest in electronic controls and the inherent low-end torque delivery of this overhead-valve engine have combined to make the engine very popular.

Type: 4.3L Gen1e V-6 ( LU3 )
Displacement: 4300cc (262 ci)
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 9.2:1
Valve configuration: overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Romulus, Mich.
Valve lifters: hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 101.6 x 88.39mm
Fuel system: sequential fuel injection
Fuel type: regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Express
GMC Savanna
195 hp ( 145 kw ) @ 4600 rpm
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Express
GMC Savanna
260 lb-ft ( 353 Nm ) @ 2800 rpm
Maximum Engine Speed: 5600 rpm
Emissions controls: evaporative system
Bin 5 emissions ( see additional features )
returnless fuel system
MATERIALS
Block: cast iron
Cylinder head: cast iron
Intake manifold: lower - cast aluminum
upper - composite
Exhaust manifold: high silicon molybdenum
cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: cast iron
Crankshaft: cast iron
Camshaft: steel
Connecting rods: powder metal (2006 interim implementation)
Additional features: Investment cast roller rocker arms
extended life spark plugs
Three layer exhaust shields
extended life coolant
GF4 oil
Dual close coupled 102 converters ( Bin 5 emissions )
4X cam timing
58X crank timing
Dual knock sensors
Threaded block heater
Oil pump stub shaft
Oil pan with noise abatement ribs
Electronic throttle control
Aluminum front cover
DIS ignition system
Chevrolet Express (3 Dr. Cargo) Transmission
M30-4L60E
GMC Savana (3 Dr. Cargo) Transmission
M30-4L60E

eAssist System


The eAssist system uses power stored in an advanced, 115V lithium-ion battery and channels it to a 15-kW motor generator to provide an electrical boost in various driving scenarios, optimizing engine and transmission operation and increasing fuel economy through:

  • Regenerative braking, which provides up to 15 kW of electricity to charge the battery
  • Providing up to 11 kW (15 hp) of electric power assistance during acceleration
  • Automatic engine shut-off when the vehicle is stopped
  • Aggressive fuel cut-off during deceleration down to zero vehicle speed, enabled by the torque smoothing provided by the motor-generator unit
  • Intelligent charge/discharge of the high-voltage battery.

Engine Block


The Ecotec 2.4L's sand-cast cylinder provides excellent structural support, as well as enabling greater control of noise, vibration and harshness. The main bearing bulkheads, which support the crank bearing, as well as the cylinder bore walls, have been significantly strengthened to support increased engine loads.

Aluminum Pistons with Jet-Spray Cooling


The Ecotec 2.4L's pistons use lightweight aluminum pistons, for less reciprocating mass inside the engine that enhances efficiency, decreases vibration and bolsters the feeling of performance as rpm increases. Each piston has its own directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and operational noise, while also bolstering the engine's durability.

Cylinder Head


The Ecotec 2.4L has a SPM 319 aluminum cylinder head that is cast with advanced semi-permanent mold technology. This provides excellent strength, reduced machining and optimal port flow. The cylinder head is designed specifically for direct injection into each combustion chamber and includes premium valve seat, valve guide and valve materials. The cylinder head also has integral cast oil passages that feed a set of internal oil control valves that activate cam phasers, enabling variable valve timing.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. This arrangement is integrated on the Ecotec 2.4L's lightweight aluminum cylinder head. Both the intake and exhaust cams have hydraulically operated vane-type phasers that are managed by a solenoid and directed by the engine control module (ECM).

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. Direct injection also reduces emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, by about 25 percent.

With direct injection, the higher compression ratio is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber. This reduces the charge temperature and lessens the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber and also feature multiple outlets for best injection control.

Cam-Driven High-Pressure Fuel Pump


A high-pressure, cam-driven pump provides the fuel pressure required of the direct injection system in the Ecotec 2.4L. The engine-mounted fuel pump is augmented by a conventional electrically operated supply pump in the fuel tank.



Overview

The Ecotec 2.4L regular production option code LUK, uses a state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery system and electric motor-generator to enable regenerative braking capability to improve fuel economy by an estimated 25 percent. The engine is based on the proven Ecotec 2.4L engine, but with features to support the eAssist system.

Type: Ecotec 2.4L I-4 VVT DI
Displacement: 2384 cc (145 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) T
Compression ratio: 11.2:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Spring Hill, Tenn.
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 88.00 x 98.00 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 96.00 mm
Fuel system: Direct injection
Fuel type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Buick Regal
Buick Lacrosse
Chevrolet Malibu
Chevrolet Impala
182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Buick Regal
Buick Lacrosse
Chevrolet Malibu
Chevrolet Impala
172 lb-ft. ( 233 Nm ) @ 4900 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 7000 rpm ( forward gears )
Emissions controls: SAI system, PZEV capable
Evaporative system
Catalytic converter
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: High silicon molybdenum, cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Aluminum bedplate
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron
Camshaft: Cast nodular iron
Connecting rods: Forged steel
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
MATERIALS
Belt driven Motor/ Generator and Lithium Ion Battery System Liquid cooled Motor Generator (MGU) with air cooled power electronics and battery pack
Maximum Electric Generating Power 15 kW @ 1570 - 3180 RPM*
Maximum Electric Motor Torque (Cranking) 150 N-m*
Maximum Electric Motor Torque (Electric Assist) 107 N-m @ 1000 RPM*
Maximum Electric Motor Power (Electric Assist) 11.2kW (15 hp) mechanical @ 1000 - 2200 RPM*
Lithium Ion Battery 115 V, 0.5 kW-hr, 15 kW peak power
*All torque and speed values are @ engine crankshaft
Buick LaCrosse Transmission
MHH-6T40-Aux Pump
Buick Regal
MHH-6T40-Aux Pump
Chevrolet Malibu Transmission
MHH-6T40-Aux Pump
Chevrolet Impala Transmission
MHH-6T40-Aux Pump

Cylinder Block and Structural Oil Pan


The Ecotec 1.4L cylinder block is made of strong gray cast iron, with five reinforced main bearings. To minimize weight, it features hollow-frame construction, making it about 20 percent lighter than a conventional casting. The block also incorporates a gray cast iron bedplate that helps reduce engine vibration; and the cylinders within the block are triple-honed for a smoother finish that minimizes piston friction and overall wear, while also optimizing oil and fuel consumption.

An aluminum oil pan is designed as a key structural component of the engine, adding stiffness that helps improve vibration characteristics.

Variable-Flow Oil Pump


The Ecotec 1.4L uses a unique variable-flow oiling system that helps maximize fuel efficiency. Rather than the linear operation of a conventional fixed-flow pump, it is accomplished with a crankshaft-driven oil pump that matches the oil supply to the engine load. The Ecotec 1.4L's variable-flow pump changes its capacity based on the engine's demand for oil. This prevents using energy to pump oil that is not required for proper engine operation.

Variable Valve Timing


The dual-overhead camshaft arrangement of the engine employs dual, continuously variable cam phasing to adjust the engine valves' opening and closing timing for optimal performance, fuel efficiency and emissions across the rpm.

Cylinder Head


An aluminum cylinder head with dual-overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder is used on the Ecotec 1.4L turbo. The head's intake port design optimizes performance, efficiency and emissions by promoting greater charge motion of the intake air and a more complete burn of the air/fuel mixture.

Hollow-Cast and Chain-Driven Camshafts


The pair of camshafts in the Ecotec 1.4L is hollow and lighter than conventional solid shafts. Along with helping reduce the overall weight of the engine, they lower the inertia of the valvetrain, allowing the engine to rev higher and more quickly. The camshafts are driven by durable chains.

Roller-Finger Camshaft Followers


A low-mass DOHC roller-finger camshaft follower is used to minimize friction and maintenance. It operates with very low frictional losses, helping enhance efficiency and lower emissions. The hydraulic lash adjusters and the chain cam drive require no maintenance during the life of the engine.

Electronically controlled thermostat


The coolant thermostat's operating point is electronically controlled to optimize engine temperatures during different phases of operation to enhance fuel efficiency. The engine control module monitors sensors and controls the thermostat based on mapping that takes into account the wide range of engine operating conditions, including temperature and load.

Coil-on-plug ignition and platinum-tipped spark plugs


Volt's Ecotec 1.4L engine features a coil-on-plug ignition system and platinum-tipped spark plugs, which reduce maintenance and promote optimal performance and efficiency. With the coil-on-plug design, individual ignition coils are connected via a short lead wire to the spark plugs over each cylinder. This direct ignition system design eliminates the need to route spark plug wires in the engine compartment, while ensuring maximum spark energy for each plug.

The platinum-tipped plugs are designed to last for 100,000 miles without the need for replacement, reducing the need for and cost of maintenance.



Overview

The heart of the Chevrolet Volt is its exclusive Voltec propulsion system, the world's first plug-in, electrically driven, extended-range system in a production vehicle. It delivers ultra-high efficiency unlike that in any other vehicle, with between 25 and 50 miles of pure electric driving (depending on terrain, driving techniques and temperature), and an onboard Ecotec 1.4L (LUU) gasoline engine that extends the Volt's range to a total of up to 379 miles.

Importantly, the 1.4L Ecotec engine does not provide drive power to the wheels. That's accomplished with a 111-kW (149-hp) electric drive unit. Positioned under the hood next to the engine, it packages a pair of electric motors and a multi-mode transaxle with continuously variable capability. The engine serves as s generator to provide power to the vehicle's electric motors.

Type: Ecotec 1.4L I-4 VVT
Displacement: 1398 cc (85 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) T
Compression ratio: 10.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts, double continuously variable cam phaser intake and exhaust (DCVCP)
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Aspern, Austria and Flint, Michigan
Valve lifters: Roller finger followers
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 73.4 x 82.6 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 78
Fuel system: Sequential multi-port fuel injectors with electronic throttle control
Fuel type: Premium unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Volt
Cadillac ELR
84 Hp (63 kW) @4800 rpm
Maximum Engine Speed: 4800 rpm
Emissions controls: close-coupled and underfloor catalytic converters; 58x ignition system; returnless fuel rail; fast light-off O2 sensor
MATERIALS
Block: Gray cast iron
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Stainless steel
Crankshaft: Hollow cast iron
Camshaft: Hollow cast iron
Connecting rods: Cast iron
Additional features: Low-mass hollow-frame cast iron block
Chain-driven cams
Roller-finger camshaft followers
Variable-flow oil pump.
Electronically controlled thermostat
Coil on plug ignition

Not Applicable

Chevrolet ELR Transmission
MKA-E-Flex Ice Drive Unit, FWD
Chevrolet Volt Transmission
MKA-E-Flex Ice Drive Unit, FWD

Cylinder Block


The Ecotec 1.4L turbo's cylinder block is made of strong gray cast iron, with five reinforced main bearings. The block offers excellent thermal properties that suit the cylinder pressure and loads generated by a turbocharger system. To minimize weight, it features hollow-frame construction, making it about 20 percent lighter than a conventional casting.

Rotating Assembly


With a reinforced, solid-cast crankshaft, the Ecotec 1.4L offers strength and stiffness, particularly at higher rpm, to support the boosted cylinder pressure of the turbo system. The connecting rods are forged steel and the lightweight, hypereutectic pistons are designed with a thicker crown area and a unique ring pack to withstand the boost pressure and heat generated by the turbo system.

Variable-Flow Oil Pump


The Ecotec 1.4L turbo uses a unique variable-flow oiling system that helps maximize fuel efficiency. Rather than the linear operation of a conventional fixed-flow pump, it is accomplished with a crankshaft-driven oil pump that matches the oil supply to the engine load. The Ecotec 1.4L turbo's variable-flow pump changes its capacity based on the engine's demand for oil. This prevents using energy to pump oil that is not required for proper engine operation.

Structural Oil Pan


An aluminum oil pan is designed as a key structural component of the engine, adding stiffness that helps improve vibration characteristics.

Cylinder Head


An aluminum cylinder head with dual-overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder is used on the Ecotec 1.4L turbo. The head's intake port design optimizes performance, efficiency and emissions by promoting greater charge motion of the intake air and a more complete burn of the air/fuel mixture. Sodium-filled exhaust valves are designed for the higher combustion temperatures of the turbo system.

Variable Valve Timing


The dual-overhead camshaft arrangement of the engine employs dual, continuously variable cam phasing to adjust the engine valves' opening and closing timing for optimal performance, fuel efficiency and emissions across the rpm.

Integrated Turbocharger and Exhaust Manifold


The Ecotec 1.4L turbo uses a unique, integrated turbocharger and exhaust manifold. The turbocharger size was chosen with an emphasis on low speed torque and throttle response. It requires fewer parts, is lighter than a conventional system, helps lower engine compartment temperatures and helps the engine warm up faster. The turbocharger is lubricated by engine oil and is liquid cooled for long-term reliability.

Electronically Controlled Thermostat


The coolant thermostat's operating point is electronically controlled to optimize engine temperatures during different phases of operation to enhance fuel efficiency. The engine control module monitors sensors and controls the thermostat based on mapping that takes into account the wide range of engine operating conditions, including temperature and load.



Overview

The turbocharged Ecotec 1.4L is part of GM's small-displacement, power-dense four-cylinder engines. The wide rpm range for maximum torque helps the engine deliver better driving experience and performance. This turbocharged engine's power-boosting advantage comes from forcing greater airflow into the engine. Its pressurized charge packs more air into the cylinders, allowing them to process the air and fuel of a larger engine for momentary driving situations.

The 1.4L's turbocharger is integrated within the exhaust manifold, for reduced weight and greater packaging flexibility in smaller vehicles. The engine incorporates numerous mass-reducing features, including a cast iron block with a hollow frame structure, hollow-cast camshafts and a plastic intake manifold.

Type: Ecotec 1.4L VVT turbocharged
Displacement: 1364 cc (83 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) T
Compression ratio: 9.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts, double continuously variable cam phaser intake and exhaust (DCVCP)
Valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site: Aspern, Austria and Flint, Michigan
Valve lifters: Roller finger followers
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x stroke: 72.5 x 82.6 mm
Bore Center: ( mm ) 78
Fuel system: Sequential multi-port fuel injectors with electronic throttle control
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Sonic 4dr., 5dr. 138 Hp (103 kW) @4900 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Cruze 138 Hp (103 kW) @4900 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Encore 138 Hp (103 kW) @4900 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Sonic 4dr., 5dr., AT 148 lb-ft.(200 Nm) @1850 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Sonic 4dr., 5dr., MT 148 lb-ft.(200 Nm) @2500 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Cruze with AT 148 lb-ft.(200 Nm) @1850 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Cruze with MT 148 lb-ft.(200 Nm) @2500 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Encore 148 lb-ft.(200 Nm) @1850 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed 6500 rpm
Emissions Summary: close-coupled and underfloor catalytic converters; 58x ignition system; returnless fuel rail; fast light-off O2 sensor
   
MATERIALS  
Block: Gray cast iron
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast iron
Crankshaft: reinforced, solid-cast
Camshaft: Hollow cast iron
Connecting rods: Forged steel
Additional features: Low-mass hollow-frame cast iron block
Chain-driven cams
Roller-finger camshaft followers
Piston-cooling oil jets and integrated oil cooler
Variable-flow oil pump.
Electronically controlled thermostat
Coil-on-plug ignition
Chevrolet Sonic (4 Dr.) Transmission
MH8-6T40
MZ4-M32-6
Chevrolet Sonic (5 Dr.) Transmission
MH8-6T40
MZ4-M32-6
Chevrolet Sonic RS (5 Dr.) Transmission
MR5-M32-6
Chevrolet Cruze Transmission
MH8-6T40
MF3-M32-6
MR5-M32-6
Buick Encore Transmission
MH8-6T40
MHB-6T40 AWD

Cylinder Block


The 1.8L's cylinder block is based on the proven hollow-frame concept. Gray cast iron provides an extremely durable foundation, optimized with a deep skirt that minimizes both wear and vibration. A structural aluminum oil pan further reduces noise, vibration and harshness, increasing the powertrain's rigidity and ensuring efficient heat transfer from the block. The 1.8L block supports greater loads than that used in previous generation engines, and it improves the overall rigidity of the engine/transmission assembly.

Less Reciprocating Mass


Like the pistons, other reciprocating components in the 1.8L were developed for an optimum mix of strength, balance and low weight. The result is less reciprocating mass inside the engine, increasing efficiency and enhancing the tactile feeling of performance as the engine builds revs.

The steel connecting rods incorporate a larger, forged I-beam cross section for added strength, without increasing weight.

Floating-Pin Pistons With Oil-Spray Cooling


The 1.8L pistons apply a floating-pin design. The wrist pins, which attach the piston to the connecting rod, "float" inside the rod bushing and pin bores in the piston barrel. Compared to a conventional fixed pin assembly, in which the connecting rod is fixed to the piston's wrist pin and the pin rotates in the pin bore, the floating pins reduce stress on the pin. They allow tighter pin to pin-bore tolerances and reduce noise generated as the piston moves through the cylinder. The benefit is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

The 1.8L's pistons also have oil-spray cooling. Each piston has its own individual directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and helping ensure durability. Additional oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing helps the Ecotec 1.8L deliver optimal performance and efficiency, with reduced emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement), without sacrificing overall engine response or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions and because it manages valve overlap at optimum levels, it eliminates the need for an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system.

Hollow-Cast and Chain-Driven Camshafts


The pair of camshafts in the Ecotec 1.8L are hollow and lighter than conventional solid shafts. Along with helping reduce the overall weight of the engine, they lower the inertia of the valvetrain, allowing the engine to rev higher and more quickly.

Modified Variable Two Step Runner Length Intake Manifold


The lateral position of the throttle valve permits an optimum port formation of the single manifold runners in connection with a reduction of the losses in the fresh air section from the air filter to the intake valve.

The cross-section of the runners is constant over the entire length. The runner length in the power mode is 40 percent of the torque mode. In order to minimize the flow resistance at high speeds, a rotary sleeve was used instead of a flap-switching device. This solution guarantees the maximum possible cross-sectional area in the open position. Another advantage of the rotary sleeve design is that a high tightness can be reached in the closed position.

Improved Lubrication


To improve thermal management, and to ensure adequate oil supply for the cam phasers and piston jets, a liquid-to-liquid oil cooler is mounted on the exhaust side of the engine block. The cooler is compact and lightweight (less than three pounds), and provides a significant decrease in oil temperature without a decrease in average oil pressure. The oil cooler is cooled by the cooling system via a dedicated coolant passage in the engine block. While the design cools the oil in the normal operating temperature range, it also allows the oil to warm more quickly. That means optimal viscosity and friction reduction sooner after a cold start.

The oil pump's flow volume is matched to the engine. The pump is packaged in an assembly module with the water pump, timing belt cover and fastening points for accessories. This unique module reduces assembly time and improves build consistency.

Advanced Cooling System


The 1.8L features an electronically controlled thermostat in a lightweight, heat-resistant plastic housing. The electronic thermostat allows more precise temperature control than a conventional thermostat, and can be opened and closed by the engine control module (ECM), rather than at a default coolant temperature. The 1.8L's cooling circuit was developed using extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis. The result is appropriate engine cooling with the least amount of coolant volume—and weight.

Stainless Steel Exhaust Manifold with Close-Coupled Catalytic Converter


The stainless steel manifold is lighter than conventional cast iron. It reduces friction and smoothes the flow of air so exhaust gas can be rapidly expelled.

The close-coupled catalyst substantially lowers emissions during cold starts, or the brief period when an engine operates at its highest emissions level. Because the exhaust ports and exhaust manifold heat more rapidly than any part of an engine, moving a smaller catalytic converter closer to the manifold allows the catalyst to heat more quickly. So positioned, the catalyst achieves light-off—the temperature at which exhaust emissions are most efficiently oxidized--sooner.



Overview

As part of GM's small-displacement, power-dense four-cylinder engines, the Ecotec 1.8L is helping GM deliver more efficient yet fun-to-drive vehicles. It delivers an excellent balance of performance and efficiency. This compact inline four-cylinder engine combines competitive output, with sophisticated technologies such as dual continuous variable cam phasing (DCVCP), variable-geometry intake manifold, electronically controlled thermostat, engine oil cooler, with low maintenance, low emissions and outstanding fuel economy.

Type: 1.8L I-4 Fam1 Gen3 ( LUW )
Displacement: 1796cc ( 110 ci )
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) T
Compression ratio: 10.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual Overhead Camshafts (DVCVP)
valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site: Bupyeoung, Korea or Toluca, Mexico
Valve lifters: Direct acting tappet with hydraulic lash adjuster
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x stroke: 80.50 x 88.2 mm
Bore Center: ( mm ) 86
Bore Area: ( cm2 ) 203.61
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Cruze 138 hp ( 103 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Sonic 138 hp ( 103 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Cruze 125 lb.-ft. ( 170 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Sonic 125 lb.-ft. ( 170 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500 rpm
Emissions Summary: GM System 0 Engine Management System with E83 ECM
Federal: Tier 2 BIN 4
California: BIN 4 ( ULEV2 Qualified )
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast Grey Iron ( hollow frame )
Cylinder head: Cast Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Fabricated Stainless Steel Maniverter 4-1
Crankshaft: Cast Nodular Iron
Camshaft: Cast Chilled Iron
Connecting rods: Forged Steel
Additional features: Double Continuous Variable Cam Phasing ( DCVCP )
Varible Two Step Runner Length Intake Manifold
Electronic Throttle Control
Electronic Controlled Cooling System
Hydraulic Tappets
Cylinder Selective Adaptive Knock Control
Engine Oil Cooler with Individual Piston Cooling Jets
Individual Coil on Plug High Energy Ignition
Extended Life Coolant
3 Layer Sheet Metal Cylinder Head Gasket
Belt Driven Camshaft
Long life (100,000-mile) spark plugs
Chevrolet Cruze Transmission
MH9-6T30
MZ0-M32-6
Chevrolet Sonic
MH9-6T30
M26-F17-5

Engine Block


The Ecotec 2.5L's sand-cast cylinder block is a superior refinement of previous Ecotec engine block castings. It is dimensionally similar with previous variants, while providing excellent structural support, as well as enabling greater control of noise, vibration and harshness.

The main bearing bulkheads, which support the crank bearing, as well as the cylinder bore walls, have been significantly strengthened to support increased engine loads. Also, refinements to the oil distribution system enable improved oil flow throughout the engine; and an expansion of the coolant jacket, along with the use of cast-in-place bore liners, allows more precise bore roundness and improves the block’s ability to dissipate heat.

Aluminum Pistons with Jet-Spray Cooling


The Ecotec 2.5L's pistons use lightweight aluminum pistons, for less reciprocating mass inside the engine that enhances efficiency, decreases vibration and bolsters the feeling of performance as rpm increases.

Each piston has its own directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and operational noise, while also bolstering the engine's durability.

The pistons are used with durable yet lightweight forged powdered metal connecting rods.

Cylinder Head


The Ecotec 2.5L has a 356T6 aluminum cylinder head that is cast with advanced semi-permanent mold technology. This provides excellent strength, reduced machining and optimal port flow. There is no need for heat treatment to the casting, which reduces residual stress and, consequently, enhances the engine's durability.

The cylinder head is designed specifically for direct injection into each combustion chamber. This is accomplished by positioning an injector under the intake port of each cylinder, so it protrudes into the chamber. The combustion chambers and ports are optimized for direct injection and high port flow.

The cylinder head includes premium valve seat, valve guide and valve materials. They were selected for minimum wear while operating in more severe conditions associated with direct injection. These premium materials, along with a hydraulic lash-adjusting lifter, ensure good durability without required lash adjustments.

The cylinder head also has integral cast oil passages that feed a set of internal oil control valves that activate cam phasers, enabling variable valve timing.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. This arrangement is integrated on the Ecotec 2.5L's lightweight aluminum cylinder head.

Both the intake and exhaust cams have hydraulically operated vane-type phasers that are managed by a solenoid and directed by the engine control module (ECM). The phasers turn the camshaft relative to the drive sprocket, allowing intake and exhaust valve timing to be adjusted independently.

Cam phasing changes the timing of valve operation as conditions such as rpm and engine load vary. It allows an outstanding balance of smooth torque delivery over a broad rpm range, high specific output and good specific fuel consumption. Cam phasing also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions. Because it manages valve overlap at optimum levels, it eliminates the need for a separate exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture and it operates at lower temperature than conventional port injection. This allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port-injection fuel system. Direct injection also reduces emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, by about 25 percent.

With direct injection, the higher compression ratio is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber. This reduces the charge temperature and lessens the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber and also feature multiple outlets for best injection control. The fuel system operates at pressure as high as 2,250 psi, compared to about 60 psi in conventional port injected engines.

Cam-Driven High-Pressure Fuel Pump


A high-pressure, cam-driven pump provides the fuel pressure required of the direct injection system in the Ecotec 2.5L. The engine-mounted fuel pump is augmented by a conventional electrically operated supply pump in the fuel tank. The fuel delivery system features a high-pressure stainless steel feed line and a pressure-regulated fuel rail, without a conventional fuel return line from the engine to the tank. Fuel pressure varies from about 750 psi at idle to 2,250 psi at wide-open throttle.

Two-Stage Thermostat


The coolant thermostat’s operating point is electronically controlled to optimize engine temperatures during different phases of operation to enhance fuel efficiency. The engine control module monitors sensors and controls the thermostat based on mapping that takes into account the wide range of engine operating conditions, including temperature and load.

The thermostat opens partially at 194 degrees F (90 C) and fully at 221 degrees F (105 C).

Two-Stage, Variable-Displacement Oil Pump


The variable-flow oiling system helps maximize fuel efficiency. Rather than the linear operation of a conventional fixed-flow pump, it is accomplished with a crankshaft-driven oil pump that matches the oil supply to the engine load. The engine’s variable-flow pump changes its capacity based on the engine’s demand for oil. This prevents using energy to pump oil that is not required for proper engine operation.

The flow volume of the oil pump is designed to support the Ecotec 2.5L’s oiling requirements that include piston cooling and camshaft phasing. The cam phasers are supplied with oil through separate bores in the cylinder block and head. The recirculation of the increased amount of oil in the cylinder head is permitted through additional pre-cast oil return channels.

Relocated Balance Shafts


The 2.5L’s balance shafts – which are commonly used in four-cylinder engines to reduce vibration – are located in a cassette in the oil pan. It’s a move from previous Ecotec engines’ cylinder block-mounted shafts, which helps reduce noise through three key design features: a shorter, quieter drive chain, precision shaft-to-shaft reversing gears and light drag torque from driving the oil pump.

The short drive chain eliminates the previous long, winding “bushed” chain that included driving the water pump. It uses a premium inverted tooth chain design instead of a conventional roller-type chain, for quieter performance. The shaft-to-shaft reversing gear set allows the drive gears of the shafts to mesh directly, eliminating the need for a chain to “back drive” the second shaft, which must rotate in the opposite direction of the first shaft. The second shaft also drives the oil pump, providing a light drag torque to pre-load the reversing gear teeth for smooth, rattle-free and quiet operation.

In-Pan Oil Pump Assembly


Another significant change from previous Ecotec engines is the relocation of the oil pump assembly from the front of the crankshaft to within the oil pan, where it is driven by the second balance shaft. This reduces noise from the front cover area – an aluminum-intensive area that radiates noise – and provides a small drag torque to ensure quiet balance shaft gear operation. Also, the oil-sump location minimizes the potential for pump cavitation noise.

Camshaft Drive with Inverted-Tooth Chain


Like the drive chain for the balance shafts, the camshaft drive chain uses a premium, inverted-tooth design that is significantly quieter than a roller-type chain. As its name implies, an inverted-tooth chain has teeth on its links – two-pin rolling pivot joints – that essentially wrap around the gear sprocket to take up virtually all the tension. This allows for smoother meshing of the chain links to the sprocket teeth, the cause of most noise in chain drive systems. The chain-to-sprocket tooth impact is greatly reduced with the inverted-tooth design (also known as a silent chain drive), which virtually eliminates noise and enhances durability.

Two-Piece Oil Pan


When it came to the oil pan, engineers faced a conundrum: Aluminum provides stiffening structure to an engine, but it radiates noise. Stamped steel, on the other hand, radiates less noise, but doesn’t offer the structural benefits needed for a stiff powertrain assembly. Their solution was to combine the materials to create a unique, two-piece oil pan that features a stiff aluminum upper section to support the engine’s structure – maintaining the Ecotec engine’s signature full-perimeter transmission mounting surface – and a stamped steel lower section to provide greater overall sound performance.

Structural Camshaft Cover


As a cast-aluminum part mounted on the very top of the engine assembly, the camshaft cover can be a significant source of noise. That’s not the case with the 2.5L, thanks to a new, structural cover design that is stiffer and mounts more rigidly to the engine. It features increased ribbing and additional attachment bolts down the center, all of which increase the cover’s stiffness to help push the engine’s sound frequency above 2,000 hertz. It also enables excellent oil sealing for valvetrain oil control passages integrated within the cover.

Acoustic Intake Manifold Cover


Like many engines in the segment, the 2.5L uses a composite plastic lightweight intake manifold. But plastic conducts noise, so engineers wrapped the intake with a clamshell-like isolating cover. It has a sound-absorbing “blanket” on the inside that snugs against the intake to provide isolation, plus the cover has a visually clean outer layer, which works as a noise barrier.

Forged Steel Crankshaft


Engineers selected a forged steel crankshaft for the 2.5L because, along with its strength and durability, it is stiffer than a conventional cast iron crankshaft. That reduces noise and vibration at mid- and high-rpm levels, enhancing the engine’s smoothness.

Iron Main Bearing Cap Inserts


Iron inserts are cast into the 2.5L’s aluminum cylinder block bedplate, enhancing the structure at the main bearings, for greater smoothness and quietness. The bedplate provides stiffness to the bottom of the cylinder block and incorporates the main bearing caps – components used to secure the crankshaft within the block. The iron insert material ensures close main bearing tolerances over a wide range of engine operating temperatures, for quieter engine lower-end noise.

Isolated Fuel Rail


Although not new to the 2.5L, its isolated fuel rail nonetheless helps achieve overall quietness. Like the Ecotec 2.4L and Ecotec 2.0L turbo, the 2.5L features direct injection, which employs a very-high pressure fuel system, including an engine-mounted fuel pump and complementing fuel injectors that “fire” with very high pressures directly into the combustion chambers. This can be a source of noise. The fuel rail is a tube-like component that supplies gasoline to the injectors. To reduce the noise associated with this efficiency-enhancing system, the injectors are suspended and the fuel rail is attached to the cylinder head with rubber-isolated, compression-limiting mounting provisions.

Structural Front Cover


Similar to the structural camshaft cover described above, the 2.5L’s front cover, which covers both the camshaft drive system and balancer drive systems, was designed with extra ribbing and secured with extra fasteners – including a new row of attachments down the middle of the cover. Like the camshaft cover, the result is a stiffer, more rigid, quieter cover that contributes to lower engine noise.




Overview

GM’s versatile and technologically advanced Ecotec engine family expands with a new, larger 2.5L (LCV) variant. It is based on a new generation of large-displacement four-cylinder engines, which was designed for greater efficiency. GM proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis techniques were used to develop an all-new combustion system with a higher compression ratio.

The new combustion system features improved knock resistance and higher flowing intake and exhaust ports in the cylinder head which help increase efficiency, power, and torque. The new Ecotec also has increased authority cam phasing to minimize any compromise between efficiency, performance, emissions, and drivability. Like the current generation of technically advanced Ecotec engines, the 2.5L also features a high pressure direct injection fuel system, dual overhead camshafts with continuously variable valve timing, electronic throttle control, and pistons with jet-spray oil cooling.

Type: 2.5L I-4
Displacement: 2457 cc (150 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) Either orientation
Compression ratio: 11.3:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Tonawanda, NY, Spring Hill, TN
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 88.00 x 101.00mm
Fuel system: SIDI (Spark Ignited Direct Injection)
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Cadillac ATS 202 hp (151 kW) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Cadillac ATS 191 lb-ft. (259 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 7000 rpm
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Catalytic converters (close coupled and underfloor)
Positive crankcase ventilation
Secondary air injection
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum 319T7
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum 356T6
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: High silicon molybdenum, cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Iron inserts cast into Bedplate
Crankshaft: Steel
Camshaft: Assembled steel
Connecting rods: Forged powdered metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
Belt Alternator Starter system capable
2-stage thermostat (90 C & 105 C)
2-stage variable displacement oil pump
Modular balance shaft system in oil pan
Precision sand cast block with cast-in-place iron liners
Spin on oil filter
Integrated N&V cover on intake manifold
Integrated front engine mount for transverse installation
Exhaust on left-hand side and intake on right-hand side
Cadillac ATS Sedan Transmission
MYA-6L45

Cylinder Block


The 1.8L's cylinder block is based on the proven hollow-frame concept. Gray cast iron provides an extremely durable foundation, optimized with a deep skirt that minimizes both wear and vibration. A structural aluminum oil pan further reduces noise, vibration and harshness, increasing the powertrain's rigidity and ensuring efficient heat transfer from the block. The 1.8L block supports greater loads than that used in previous generation engines, and it improves the overall rigidity of the engine/transmission assembly.

Less Reciprocating Mass


Like the pistons, other reciprocating components in the 1.8L were developed for an optimum mix of strength, balance and low weight. The result is less reciprocating mass inside the engine, increasing efficiency and enhancing the tactile feeling of performance as the engine builds revs.

The steel connecting rods incorporate a larger, forged I-beam cross section for added strength, without increasing weight.

Floating-Pin Pistons With Oil-Spray Cooling


The 1.8L pistons apply a floating-pin design. The wrist pins, which attach the piston to the connecting rod, "float" inside the rod bushing and pin bores in the piston barrel. Compared to a conventional fixed pin assembly, in which the connecting rod is fixed to the piston's wrist pin and the pin rotates in the pin bore, the floating pins reduce stress on the pin. They allow tighter pin to pin-bore tolerances and reduce noise generated as the piston moves through the cylinder. The benefit is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

The 1.8L's pistons also have oil-spray cooling. Each piston has its own individual directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and helping ensure durability. Additional oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing helps the Ecotec 1.8L deliver optimal performance and efficiency, with reduced emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement), without sacrificing overall engine response or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions and because it manages valve overlap at optimum levels, it eliminates the need for an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system.

Hollow-Cast and Chain-Driven Camshafts


The pair of camshafts in the Ecotec 1.8L are hollow and lighter than conventional solid shafts. Along with helping reduce the overall weight of the engine, they lower the inertia of the valvetrain, allowing the engine to rev higher and more quickly.

Modified Variable Two Step Runner Length Intake Manifold


The lateral position of the throttle valve permits an optimum port formation of the single manifold runners in connection with a reduction of the losses in the fresh air section from the air filter to the intake valve.

The cross-section of the runners is constant over the entire length. The runner length in the power mode is 40 percent of the torque mode. In order to minimize the flow resistance at high speeds, a rotary sleeve was used instead of a flap-switching device. This solution guarantees the maximum possible cross-sectional area in the open position. Another advantage of the rotary sleeve design is that a high tightness can be reached in the closed position.

Improved Lubrication


To improve thermal management, and to ensure adequate oil supply for the cam phasers and piston jets, a liquid-to-liquid oil cooler is mounted on the exhaust side of the engine block. The cooler is compact and lightweight (less than three pounds), and provides a significant decrease in oil temperature without a decrease in average oil pressure. The oil cooler is cooled by the cooling system via a dedicated coolant passage in the engine block. While the design cools the oil in the normal operating temperature range, it also allows the oil to warm more quickly. That means optimal viscosity and friction reduction sooner after a cold start.

The oil pump's flow volume is matched to the engine. The pump is packaged in an assembly module with the water pump, timing belt cover and fastening points for accessories. This unique module reduces assembly time and improves build consistency.

Advanced Cooling System


The 1.8L features an electronically controlled thermostat in a lightweight, heat-resistant plastic housing. The electronic thermostat allows more precise temperature control than a conventional thermostat, and can be opened and closed by the engine control module (ECM), rather than at a default coolant temperature. The 1.8L's cooling circuit was developed using extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis. The result is appropriate engine cooling with the least amount of coolant volume—and weight.

Stainless Steel Exhaust Manifold with Close-Coupled Catalytic Converter


The stainless steel manifold is lighter than conventional cast iron. It reduces friction and smoothes the flow of air so exhaust gas can be rapidly expelled.

The close-coupled catalyst substantially lowers emissions during cold starts, or the brief period when an engine operates at its highest emissions level. Because the exhaust ports and exhaust manifold heat more rapidly than any part of an engine, moving a smaller catalytic converter closer to the manifold allows the catalyst to heat more quickly. So positioned, the catalyst achieves light-off—the temperature at which exhaust emissions are most efficiently oxidized--sooner.

Secondary Air Injection


A Secondary Air Injection (SAI) system helps meet SULEV emissions requirements in certain states. At engine start-up, during open loop operation, where the catalytic converter has not reached an operating temperature, the secondary air injection pump, which is designed to meet exact flow requirements of the system, provides pressurized fresh air into the pipes/hoses, through the open shutoff and check valves and into the exhaust ports of the cylinder head. The extra air accelerates the catalyst operation, helping it to reach operating temperature faster which aids in the reduction of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions during cold starts.



Overview

As part of GM's small-displacement, power-dense four-cylinder engines, the Ecotec 1.8L is helping GM deliver more efficient yet fun-to-drive vehicles. It delivers an excellent balance of performance and efficiency. This compact inline four-cylinder engine combines competitive output, with sophisticated technologies such as dual continuous variable cam phasing (DCVCP), variable-geometry intake manifold, electronically controlled thermostat, engine oil cooler, with low maintenance, low emissions and outstanding fuel economy.

The LWE-code version of the LUW adds Secondary Air Injection, which adds fresh air to the exhaust stream for a more complete combustion of the exhaust gases – to enable PZEV (partial zero-emissions vehicle) status in California and Northeast states that require enhanced emissions.

Type: 1.8L I-4 Fam1 Gen3 ( LWE )
Displacement: 1796cc ( 110 ci )
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) T
Compression ratio: 10.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual Overhead Camshafts (DVCVP)
valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site: Toluca, Mexico and Bupyeong, S. Korea
Valve lifters: Direct acting tappet with hydraulic lash adjuster
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x stroke: 80.50 x 88.2 mm
Bore Center: ( mm ) 86
Bore Area: ( cm2 ) 203.61
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Cruze 138 hp ( 103 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Sonic 138 hp ( 103 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Cruze 125 lb.-ft. ( 170 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Sonic 125 lb.-ft. ( 170 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500 rpm
Emissions Summary: GM System 0 Engine Management System with E83 ECM
Federal: Tier 2 BIN 4
California: BIN 4 ( ULEV2 Qualified )
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast Grey Iron ( hollow frame )
Cylinder head: Cast Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Fabricated Stainless Steel Maniverter 4-1
Crankshaft: Cast Nodular Iron
Camshaft: Cast Chilled Iron
Connecting rods: Forged Steel
Additional features: Double Continuous Variable Cam Phasing ( DCVCP )
Varible Two Step Runner Length Intake Manifold
Electronic Throttle Control
Electronic Controlled Cooling System
Hydraulic Tappets
Cylinder Selective Adaptive Knock Control
Engine Oil Cooler with Individual Piston Cooling Jets
Individual Coil on Plug High Energy Ignition
Extended Life Coolant
3 Layer Sheet Metal Cylinder Head Gasket
Secondary Air Injection
Belt Driven Camshaft
Long life (100,000-mile) spark plugs
Chevrolet Cruze Transmission
MH9-6T30
MZ0-M32-6
Chevrolet Sonic (4 Dr., 5 Dr.)
MH9-6T30
M26-F17-5

Dual Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Dual continuously variable cam phasing optimizes the 1.2L performance in all operating conditions. Cam phasing changes the timing of valve operation as circumstances such as rpm and engine load vary. It allows an outstanding balance of smooth torque delivery over a broad rpm range, good specific output at high rpm, good specific fuel consumption and minimal emissions.

Cylinder Block


Grey cast iron provides an extremely durable foundation, optimized with a deep skirt that minimizes both wear and vibration.

The block supports greater loads than that used in previous generation engines, and it improves the overall rigidity of the engine/transmission assembly. Water jackets have been optimized to significantly improve heat transfer with the help of coolant flow diverters.

High Performance Cylinder Head


The aluminum cylinder head has been optimized for the addition of variable valve timing and hydraulic lash adjuster’s (HLA). The HLA’s eliminate the need for future service intervals for lash adjustment.

Valve size and cam profiles are carefully matched to the head’s flow characteristics. Intake and exhaust ports were developed for high tumble, excellent air flow and fuel mixing. Through simulation optimized coolant passages and oil galleries have been designed to provide efficient cooling and optimized oil flow. The fatigue strength characteristics of the head structure were also improved.

Stainless Steel Exhaust Manifold with Close-Coupled Catalytic Converter


The 1.2L LL0 is equipped with a new four-into-one stainless steel exhaust manifold with the most advantageous runner shape to minimize the exhaust flow restrictions, and the most favorable O2 sensor position to monitor air-fuel imbalance within each cylinder.

The stainless steel manifold is smoother for flow, and also lighter than cast iron. In addition, the thin wall runner with stainless steel has smaller thermal inertia and it can help with the catalytic converters fast light-off. Moving a smaller catalytic converter closer to the manifold allows the catalyst to heat more quickly. So positioned, the catalyst achieves light-off—the temperature at which exhaust emissions are most efficiently oxidized--sooner.

Advanced Cooling System


The 1.2L features an electronically controlled thermostat in a compact aluminum die cast housing. The electronic thermostat allows more precise temperature control than a conventional thermostat, and can be opened by the ECM, rather than at a default coolant temperature.

ETC (Electric Throttle Control)


The ETC is used to adjust the load of a combustion engine controlled by the engine control unit (ECU) based on the accelerator pedal set value.

Low Mass Valvetrain


Direct acting hydraulic tappets are applied to eliminate the need for future service intervals that would otherwise be required with mechanical tappets. While the assembled camshaft, valve spring retainer, and valves are low mass design.

Low Friction and High Wear Resistance Piston Ring


Ring tension was optimized for both low friction and low oil consumption. A physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was applied to the top and oil ring, resulting in less ring wear / better oil consumption at high mileage.

Less Reciprocating Mass


Like the pistons, other reciprocating components in the 1.2L were developed for an optimum mix of strength, balance and low weight. The result is less reciprocating mass inside the engine, increasing efficiency. The forged steel connecting rods incorporate a weight-optimized I-beam design.

Rotating Cranktrain


The 1.2L’s crankshaft is optimized for long durability while reducing loads and lowering friction. The 8 counterweight design is cast from high strength ductile iron and features cross drilled main journals to maximize oil feed to the rod bearings.

Both main and rod bearings are of modern bi-metallic aluminum alloy. A partial upper main oil groove is used to minimize leakage, while two oil holes are adopted for stable oil supply.

A torsional damper pulley is used to improve crankshaft life by reducing the vibration. High temperature resistant EPDM rubber is incorporated to meet underhood demands. The damper utilizes a press-fit assembly method to enhance robustness of the bolted joint.

Both the manual transmission flywheel and automatic transmission flex plate are robustly designed to endure lifetime loads and resist failure at almost twice normal engine speed. Both also feature provisions necessary for the application of start and stop technology.

Cam drive system - Inverted tooth chain


The cam drive system employs a 6.25 mm inverted tooth chain, with hydraulic tensioner which controls proper tension through the entire engine speed. It provides excellent durability and a very low noise characteristic, as well as considerable space savings.

Lightweight Plastic Intake Manifold


The intake manifold is made by thermoplastic material to minimize weight and maximize the flow of induction air by reducing friction. Optimized PCV passage prevents both the PCV system and the throttle body from icing and it provides the minimized deviation of PCV distribution. The acoustic insulator is also integrated with the intake manifold which helps minimize noise.

Lubrication system


For improved customer satisfaction, the engine adopts GM’s OLM (Oil Life Monitoring) System, which can provide optimized oil change intervals. Low weight Global “Dexos” 5W-20 engine oil is applied to reduce engine friction and improve fuel economy. Oil pump is packaged within the front cover which also incorporates the powertrain torque reaction axis mount. It is optimized for lubrication demand and supports new features such as DVCP and HLA. The spline design on oil pump is applied to reduce N&V. Dipstick is enhanced to improve interface and readability. Stamped steel oil pan is applied to the engine for low weight.

Ventilation system


Aluminum material is used for robust cam cover design. The cam cover integrates the OCV (Oil Control Valve) to control DVCP. Both Intake and Exhaust OCV’s are directly mounted to the cam cover, while lubrication passages are also designed directly into cam cover. Between the cam cover and cylinder head superior sealing is provided by a reusable PIP (Press In Place) gasket. The secondary cover improves PCV performance and prevents icing. PCV valve is mounted on cam cover where it is beneficial to control low flow at the low load conditions, and high flow at the high load conditions. Cam position sensors are mounted on the cam cover, radial to the target wheels, while a dual tang oil filler cap is used to improve removal and installation feel.



Overview

As part of GM’s range of small-displacement, power-dense four-cylinder engines, the Ecotec 1.2L is helping GM deliver more efficient yet fun-to-drive vehicles in North America. It leverages the technical expertise of engineers and designers around the globe, including South Korea.

This compact inline four-cylinder engine combines competitive performance, with sophisticated technologies such as dual continuously variable cam phasing (DCVCP), electronically controlled thermostat & low friction engine oil. Engine attributes include low maintenance, low emissions and outstanding fuel economy.

Fam A/B 1.2L (LL0): Fam A/B 1.2L (LL0)
Type: I-4
Displacement: 1249cc(73 CID)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) T
Compression ratio: 10.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual Overhead Camshafts (DVCVP)
valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site: Changwon, South Korea
Valve lifters: Direct acting tappet with hydraulic lash adjuster
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x stroke: 70.50 x 80.00 mm
Bore Center: ( mm ) 75.50 mm
Bore Area: ( cm2 ) 39.04
Fuel system: MPFI
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Spark 84 hp (62.6 kW ) @ 6400rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500rpm (MT), 6850rpm (AT)
Emissions Summary: GM System 0 Engine Management System with E83 ECM
Federal: Tier 2 BIN 4
California: BIN 4 ( ULEV2 Qualified )
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast Grey Iron
Cylinder head: Cast Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Fabricated Stainless Steel Maniverter 4-1
Crankshaft: Cast Iron
Camshaft: Assembly camshaft
Connecting rods: Forged Steel
Additional features: Double Continuous Variable Cam Phasing ( DCVCP )
Electronic Throttle Control
Electronic Controlled Cooling System
Hydraulic Tappets
Individual Coil on Plug with Driver
Silent Chain Driven Camshaft
Long life (100,000-mile) spark plugs
Chevrolet Spark Transmission
M4M-CVT7
MX2-Y4M HD

Engine Block


The Ecotec 2.0L turbo sand-cast cylinder block is a superior refinement of previous Ecotec engine block castings. It is dimensionally similar with previous Ecotec turbo block variants, while providing improved structural support, as well as enabling greater control of noise, vibration and harshness.

The main bearing bulkheads, which support the crank bearings, as well as the cylinder bore walls have been significantly strengthened to support increased engine loads. Refinements to the oil distribution system enable improved oil flow throughout the engine and an expansion of the coolant jacket, along with the use of cast-in-place bore liners, allows more precise bore roundness and improves the block’s ability to dissipate heat.

Rotating Assembly


The crankshaft is made of drop forged steel with induction heat-treated fillets and cross-drilled chamfered oil passages for racing-grade lubrication characteristics. Forged powdered metal connecting rods incorporate a larger, forged I-beam cross section for added strength in this turbocharged application.

The pistons in the 2.0L turbo are lightweight cast aluminum, which reduces reciprocating mass inside the engine. This enhances efficiency and the feeling of performance as the rpm increases. The tops of the pistons have a dish shape that deflects injected fuel.

Each piston has its own directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reduces both friction and operational noise and bolsters the engine's durability.

Rotocast Aluminum Cylinder Head with Sodium Filled Exhaust Valves


The Ecotec 2.0L turbo's A356T6 aluminum cylinder head is cast using a Rotocast process for high strength, reduced machining and improved port flow. (A similar method is used in the casting of the supercharged Corvette ZR1’s LS9 cylinder heads.) The head is also designed specifically for direct injection. In other Ecotec engines, the fuel injectors are mounted in the intake ports but the 2.0L turbo head has unique injector mounting locations below the ports. Apart from injector installation, the head has conventional port and combustion chamber designs, both are optimized for direct injection and high boost pressure.

The head uses stainless steel intake valves that are nitrided for improved durability and undercut to improve flow and reduce weight. The exhaust valves have sodium-filled stems that promote valve cooling. At normal engine operating temperatures, the sodium inside the valve stem fuses and becomes liquid. The liquid sodium improves conductivity, promoting heat transfer away from the valve face and valve guide to the cooler end of the stem, where it more readily dissipates. This helps maintain a lower, more uniform valve temperature, reducing wear on the valve guide for better alignment and a consistent seal between the valve seat and valve face over the life of the engine.

Performance was the priority with the Ecotec 2.0L turbo, so the exhaust manifold mounted to the cylinder head is made of cast stainless steel. It is extremely durable and delivers exceptional airflow qualities.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. This arrangement is integrated on the Ecotec 2.0L's lightweight aluminum cylinder head.

Continuously variable valve timing optimizes the engine's turbocharging system by adjusting valve timing at lower rpm for improved turbo response and greater torque delivery. Both the intake and exhaust cams have hydraulically operated vane-type phasers that are managed by a solenoid and directed by the engine control module (ECM). The phasers turn the camshaft relative to the drive sprocket, allowing intake and exhaust valve timing to be adjusted independently.

Cam phasing changes the timing of valve operation as conditions such as rpm and engine load vary. It allows an outstanding balance of smooth torque delivery over a broad rpm range, high specific output and good specific fuel consumption.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. This allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port-injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, by about 25 percent.

The higher compression ratio with direct injection is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber, which reduces the charge temperature to lessen the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber, and feature multiple outlets for best injection control. The fuel system operates at pressure as high as 2,250 psi, compared to about 60 psi in conventional port-injected engines.

Cam-Driven High-Pressure Fuel Pump


A high-pressure, cam-driven pump provides the fuel pressure required of the Ecotec 2.0L turbo’s direct injection system. The engine-mounted fuel pump is augmented by a conventional electrically operated supply pump in the fuel tank. The fuel delivery system features a high-pressure stainless steel feed line and a pressure-regulated fuel rail without a conventional fuel return line from the engine to the tank. Fuel pressure varies from about 750 psi at idle to 2,250 psi at wide-open throttle.

Two-Stage, Variable-Displacement Oil Pump


The variable-flow oiling system helps maximize fuel efficiency. Rather than the linear operation of a conventional fixed-flow pump, it is accomplished with a crankshaft-driven oil pump that matches the oil supply to the engine load. The engine’s variable-flow pump changes its capacity based on the engine’s demand for oil. This prevents using energy to pump oil that is not required for proper engine operation.

An engine oil cooler helps maintain optimum oil temperatures. It has a heat exchanger incorporated into the oil filter housing. Coolant to the heat exchanger is provided by the engine’s coolant circuit. The design optimizes oil cooling with a minimal pressure loss. During the cold starting, the system also enables faster heating of the engine oil for an earlier reduction of internal engine friction.

Twin-Scroll Turbocharger


An advanced, electronically controlled turbocharger with a unique twin-scroll design is used to increase power in the Ecotec 2.0L turbo. Each of two scrolls on the turbine is fed by a separate exhaust passage – one from cylinders one and four, the other from cylinders two and three – to virtually eliminates turbo lag at low engine speeds, giving the engine immediate throttle response associated with a naturally aspirated high-performance engine.

The turbocharger generates maximum boost of about 20 psi. Because direct injection cools the intake process compared to port injection, it allows the Ecotec 2.0L turbo to safely operate at higher boost and a relatively higher compression (9.2:1) than a conventional turbo engine, increasing both output and efficiency.

Air-to-Air Intercooler


An intake charge cooler enhances the power-increasing benefits of the turbocharging system. The Ecotec 2.0L turbo’s air-to-air intercooler draws fresh air through a heat exchanger – much like a radiator – to reduce the temperature of compressed air that’s forced through the intake system by the turbocharger. Inlet temperature is reduced as much as 212 degrees F. Cooler air is denser, which means more oxygen is packed in the cylinders for optimal combustion and, consequently, greater power.

Cam-Driven Vacuum Pump


A cam-driven vacuum pump ensures the availability of vacuum under all conditions, especially under boost, when the engine produces the opposite of vacuum. The pump is mounted at the rear of the cylinder head and is driven by the exhaust camshaft via a flexible coupling.




Overview

Performance from GM’s Ecotec family of engines continues to advance with the introduction of the latest 2.0L Turbo variant – known by its “LTG” engine code – which debuts in the 2013 model year. It is based on a new generation of large-displacement four-cylinder engines which was designed for greater efficiency.

The turbocharger generates up to 20 pounds of boost and its twin-scroll design helps optimize the usable power from the engine, virtually eliminating turbo lag and helping deliver a broad power band. It also gives the engine the rapid throttle responsiveness associated with a higher-displacement naturally aspirated high-performance engine. Electronically controlled supporting components, including the wastegate and bypass, help optimize performance and efficiency.

Type: 2.0L I-4
Displacement: 1998 cc (150 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) L & T
Compression ratio: 9.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Tonawanda
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 86.00 x 86.00 mm
Fuel system: SIDI (Spark Ignited Direct Injection)
Fuel type: Premium recommended
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Cadillac ATS 272 hp (203 kW) @ 5500 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS Sedan 272 hp (203 kW) @ 5500 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Malibu 259 hp (193 kW) @ 5300 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Regal, Regal GS 259 hp (193 kW) @ 5300 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Cadillac ATS 260 lb-ft (353 Nm) @ 1700 - 5500 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS Sedan 295 lb-ft (400 Nm) @ 3000 - 4500 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Malibu 295 lb-ft (400 Nm) @ 3000 - 4000 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Regal 295 lb-ft (400 Nm) @ 3000 - 4000 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Regal GS 295 lb-ft (400 Nm) @ 2500 - 4000 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 7000 rpm
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Catalytic converters (close coupled and underfloor)
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum 319T7
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum 356T6 Rotocast
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast stainless steel
Main bearing caps: Iron inserts cast into Bedplate
Crankshaft: Steel
Camshaft: Assembled steel
Connecting rods: Forged powdered metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
Belt Alternator Starter system capable
2-stage thermostat (90 C & 105 C)
2-stage variable displacement oil pump
Modular balance shaft system in oil pan
Precision sand cast block with cast-in-place iron liners
Spin on oil filter
Integrated N&V cover on intake manifold
Integrated front engine mount for transverse installation
Exhaust on left-hand side and intake on right-hand side
Dual-scroll turbocharger
Electronic bypass valve
Buick Regal, Regal GS Transmission
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
Buick Regal, Regal GS Transmission
M7W-6T70-CU
Buick Regal GS Transmission
MR6-FWD-F40-6-FWD
Cadillac CTS Sedan Transmission
MYA-6L45
Cadillac ATS Sedan Transmission
M3L-TR3160
MYA-6L45
Chevrolet Malibu Transmission
M7W-6T70-CU

Low Maintenance


The 4L60 uses DEXRON® VI fluid, which is designed for long-life operation. Also, the ability to tailor the transmission to specific platform requirements within its maximum torque range helps ensure the 4L60 is operated as designed.

4WD Applications


The 4L60 is used with several different transfer cases in four- and all-wheel-drive applications.


Product Highlights

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HYDRA-MATIC 4L60 FOUR-SPEED AUTOMATIC (M30)

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Overview

Renowned for its durability, smoothness and efficiency in trucks, the Hydra-Matic 4L60 (M30) electronically controlled four-speed automatic has been used in almost every GM truck during the past 15 years. Its sophisticated electronic controls and high-torque capability enable it to play an important role in supporting the capability of midsize and full-size trucks, as well GM's full-size vans.

The Hydra-Matic 4L60 has two planetary gearsets that have four pinion gears. Robust bushings and bearings help ensure the dependable performance and long-term durability customers expect of their trucks, including towing. The 4L60 is also characterized by rigid structures and low-noise designs.

Type: four speed rear-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transmission with torque
Engine range: 2.9L - 5.3L
Maximum engine torque: 360 lb-ft (488 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 610 lb-ft (827 Nm)
Gear ratios: M30
First: 3.060
Second: 1.630
Third: 1.00
Fourth: 0.696
Reverse: 2.290
Maximum shift speed: 1-2 6200 rpm
2-3 6100 rpm
3-4 n/a
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 3357 kg (7400 lb)
7-position quadrant: P, R, N, OD, D, 2, 1
P, R, N, OD, 3, 2, 1
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: (2) two-way on/off solenoid control
Shift quality: variable bleed solenoid
Torque converter clutch: pulse width modulated solenoid control
Converter size: 258, 300 mm
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: wet: 74 - 88.5 kg (163.2 - 195.0 lb)
Fluid capacity: bottom pan removal: 10.8L (11.4 qt)
( 300mm converter ))
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Assembly sites: Toledo, Ohio
Ramos Arizpe, Mexico
Applications: Chevrolet Express
GMC Savana
Chevrolet Express (3 Dr. Cargo)
Vortec 4.3L V-6
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass)
Vortec 5.3L V-8 VVT
GMC Savana Express (3 Dr. Cargo)
Vortec 4.3L V-6
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass) Engine
Vortec 5.3L V-8 VVT

Electrically Variable Transmission with Two Integral Electric Motors


The 2-Mode Hybrid transmission contains two electric motors, three planetary gear sets, and four wet-plate clutches. Three, 300-volt AC cables are connected to each of the two motors, which attach to the transmission housing via a rigid conduit around the transmission and are connected to an inverter that drives the motors.

The hybrid transmission can operate in multiple modes, including propelling the vehicle electrically with the combustion engine off. The first EVT mode (Mode-1) is designed for maximizing fuel economy and performance for city driving, while the second EVT mode (Mode-2) is designed for optimizing highway fuel economy and performance.

Electric Vehicle (EV) Drive Operating Capability


In typical EV drive operation, the vehicle initially accelerates with the engine off, using only electrical power from the 300V nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack for propulsion. As the acceleration continues, the electric motors will simultaneously propel the vehicle and start the engine. With the engine running, the control system will blend the electrical power with the engine power, operating in the most efficient range to maximize fuel economy.

When decelerating, the regenerative braking system can capture much of the vehicle's kinetic energy through the electric motors that are now acting as generators. The regenerative braking energy is stored in the NiMH battery and can be used later for EV drive.

Low Maintenance


Automatic transmission fluid is used as a lubricant and to cool the electric motors. For normal use there is no fluid change scheduled for the life of the vehicle.


2-MODE HYBRID TRANSMISSION (M99)

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Overview

General Motors' patented 2-Mode Hybrid transmission (M99) is the lynchpin for technologically advanced, industry-leading hybrid propulsion for full-size trucks and SUVs. It is an integral component of the hybrid drive system.

The 2-Mode Hybrid transmission enables electric drive up to about 27 mph, helping deliver about 33 percent greater fuel economy in the city when compared with non-hybrid models. It also helps the vehicles deliver the capability and towing capacity expected of full-size trucks and SUVs – including electric drive when towing.

The 2-Mode Hybrid transmission is available in both two and four-wheel drive configurations. It features an open planetary differential. Traction control and wheel-slip monitoring are performed by the stability control and anti-lock braking systems.

Type: 2 Mode Continuous Electric Ratio Hybrid Transmission With 4 Fixed Gears. Integrated Electric Motors With Full Engine Off Operational Capability. ( Strong Hybrid RWD )
Maximum engine power: 332 bhp ( 248 kW )
Maximum engine torque: 367 lb-ft ( 498 Nm )
Maximum gearbox torque: 379 lb-ft ( 515 Nm )
Gear ratios: M99
First: 3.69
Second: 1.70
Third: 1.00
Fourth: 0.73
EV1 Mode 1 Infinity to 1.7
EV2 Mode 2 1.70 to < .74
Reverse: 3.7 Electric Only
Maximum shift speed
Maximum Gross Vehicle Weight: GVW*: 7300 lb ( 3310 kg ), GCVW*: 14000 lb ( 6350 kg ) *For reference only. Not applicable to a specific application.
shift-position quadrant: P, R, N, D, M ( M = Manual Range Selection )
Case description: 3-piece ( Torque Dampener Housing, Main, Extension )
Case material: Die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Continuously varible with optimized selection between EVT and fixed ratio operation
Shift quality: Synchronous shifting between EVT and fixed ratio operation
Individual Electric Motor Power 60 Kwatt
Individual Electric Motor Torque 227 lb-ft ( 308 Nm )
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: Wet: 170kg ( 374lb )
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Assembly Site: GMPT Baltimore, MD
Available Control Features: Vehicle Braking Energy Recovery via Electric Regeneration
Real Time Optimized Ratio Selection
Driver Shift Control ( Tap Up / Tap Down )
Multiple Shift Patterns ( Selectable or Adaptive )
Continuous Engine Torque Management
Altitude and Temperature Compensation
Neutral Idle
Reverse Lockout
Additional Features: Oil Life Monitor
OBDII / EOBD
Integral Electro/Hydraulic Controls Module ( Tehcm )
Control Interface Protocol - GMLAN
Cadillac Escalade Hybrid / Escalade Platinum Hybrid Engine
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid Engine
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Sierra Hybrid Engine
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Yukon Hybrid / Yukon Denali Hybrid
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT




AISIN-WARNER F40 SIX-SPEED FWD/AWD AUTOMATIC (MDK)

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Overview

The Aisin-Warner AF40-6 is a compact, lightweight, electronically controlled six-speed automatic transaxle for front-wheel-drive and all-wheel-drive applications. A unique combination of a conventional five-pinion planetary gear set and a compound Ravignaux gear set – known as a Le Pelletier arrangement – makes the AF40-6 very lightweight and compact. Shifts are managed by a sophisticated transmission control module (TCM) that oversees clutch-to-clutch actuation, while gear changes are accomplished by one clutch engaging the instant the clutch from the previous gear disengages.

The AF40-6 uses a six-element, dual-stage torque converter with a lock-up clutch that helps optimize fuel economy.

Type: six speed front wheel drive, electonically controlled automatic tansmission with torque converter clutch
Maximum engine torque: 400 Nm
Gear ratios: MDK
First: 4.148
Second: 2.370
Third: 1.556
Fourth: 1.555
Fifth: 0.859
Sixth: 0.686
Reverse: 3.394
F/D: 3.200
Ratio spread 6,05:1
Maximum shift speed: 7000 rpm
Min input speed: 650 rpm
Shifting mechanism: Integrated position sensor with TCM
Shifting positions: P,R,N,D (by cable) & Tiptronic (by CAN)
Case material: Die cast aluminum
Center distance: 197 mm
Overall length: 358 mm
Shift pattern: Pulse width modulated solenoid control
Shift quality: Variable bleed solenoid
Torque converter clutch: Pulse width modulated solenoid control
Available control features: Eco Mode
Manual Mode (Tiptronic)
Up Hill Control
Down Hill Control
Shift by Temperature
Brake Assist
Neutral Control
Tip Auto Down
Tip Auto Up
Improved Downshift Protection
Highest Gear in Limp Home
EOBD II, OBD OBDII
Converter size: D241 Large
k-Factor: 207K
Torque ratio: 2.24
Fluid type AW-1 (low friction), lifetime fill
Transmission weight (dry): 85,7 kg
Fluid capacity 6,96 kg (incl. cooler)
Pressure taps available: Access to all clutches & brakes possible
Assmbly site: Anjo City, Japan
Applications: Chevrolet Cruze
Chevrolet Cruze Engine
2.0L Turbo Diesel

On-Axis Design


Instead of "folding" the transmission around the end of a transversely mounted engine, which has been one of the dominant GM transaxle design conventions, the 6T70/6T75 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout can translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Advanced Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow perfect timing between shifts, but also take up more space and add more components to the transmission. However, due to the electronic controls, the clutch-to-clutch concept of the 6T70/6T75 delivers the same accurate shift timing.

Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with a precise clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, however, is a freewheeling action, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Compact Dimensions


State-of-the-art dimensions enable spacious packaging and enhance potential safety design opportunities. In addition, styling opportunities for lower hood lines are also enabled by the compact dimensions of the 6T70 and 6T75.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The 246 mm torque converter in the 6T70/6T75 uses a 258-mm single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help dampen engine vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

Vane-Type Variable-Capacity Pump


A chain-driven, off-axis fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for the shift events and lubrication. The pump features vanes that can vary its output, optimizing the amount of energy the pump needs to operate. Internal tests have demonstrated improved powertrain efficiency with the variable-capacity pump.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the transmissions' helical gears are ground and honed to ensure exact dimensions and tolerances. With closer tolerances, the gears are less prone to characteristic whining or humming, and the transmissions operate with exceptional quietness.

Unique Input Shaft Bushings


The input shaft requires no machining for grooves to contain fluid seals, which allows the shaft to retain maximum strength for its size and minimize cost.



Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6T70 (MH2, MH4, M7W and M7U) and 6T75 (M7X and M7V) transmissions are part of GM's family of technically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics designed to optimize efficiency while delivering exceptional smoothness and an excellent feeling of performance. Because of the wide ratio spread, first gear is a very high ratio, which provides brisk acceleration from a stop. Sixth, however, is an overdrive ratio, which keeps the engine revolutions as low as possible for highway cruising, reducing engine friction losses and improving fuel economy.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch.
Engine range: 3.0L - 3.6L
Maximum engine torque: 280 lb-ft (380 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 450Nm 1st gear / 515 Nm 2nd-6th gears
Gear ratios: MH2
First: 4.484
Second: 2.872
Third: 1.842
Fourth: 1.414
Fifth: 1.000
Sixth: 0.742
Reverse: 2.882
Final Drive Ratio: 2.77 ( Effective Final Drive Ratio )
Maximum input speed: Rev 5000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 6500 rpm
5-6 5798 rpm
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2619 kg (5775 lbs)
Shifter Positions: P, R, N, D, M, (DSC+/-) & L (MU/MD)
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: 6 Variable Bleed Solenoids
Shift quality: 6 Variable Bleed Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 246mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI; 9986153; Spec:GMN10060
Transmission weight: wet: 102.0 - 102.4 kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 9.0L (9.5 qt)
Bottom pan removal: No
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Transfer design: three-axis design
Assembly sites: Warren, Mich.; Ramos Arizpe, Mexico
Applications: Chevrolet Impala Limitied PPV
Chevrolet Impala Limitied Fleet Only
Chevrolet Impala Limited PPV Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Chevrolet Impala Limited (Fleet only) Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI

On-Axis Design


Instead of "folding" the transmission around the end of a transversely mounted engine, which has been one of the dominant GM transaxle design conventions, the 6T70/6T75 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout can translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Advanced Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow perfect timing between shifts, but also take up more space and add more components to the transmission. However, due to the electronic controls, the clutch-to-clutch concept of the 6T70/6T75 delivers the same accurate shift timing.

Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with a precise clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, however, is a freewheeling action, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Compact Dimensions


State-of-the-art dimensions enable spacious packaging and enhance potential safety design opportunities. In addition, styling opportunities for lower hood lines are also enabled by the compact dimensions of the 6T70 and 6T75.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The 246 mm torque converter in the 6T70/6T75 uses a 258-mm single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help dampen engine vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

Vane-Type Variable-Capacity Pump


A chain-driven, off-axis fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for the shift events and lubrication. The pump features vanes that can vary its output, optimizing the amount of energy the pump needs to operate. Internal tests have demonstrated improved powertrain efficiency with the variable-capacity pump.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the transmissions' helical gears are ground and honed to ensure exact dimensions and tolerances. With closer tolerances, the gears are less prone to characteristic whining or humming, and the transmissions operate with exceptional quietness.

Unique Input Shaft Bushings


The input shaft requires no machining for grooves to contain fluid seals, which allows the shaft to retain maximum strength for its size and minimize cost.



Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6T70 (MH2, MH4, M7W and M7U) and 6T75 (M7X and M7V) transmissions are part of GM's family of technically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics designed to optimize efficiency while delivering exceptional smoothness and an excellent feeling of performance. Because of the wide ratio spread, first gear is a very high ratio, which provides brisk acceleration from a stop. Sixth, however, is an overdrive ratio, which keeps the engine revolutions as low as possible for highway cruising, reducing engine friction losses and improving fuel economy.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch. All Wheel Drive model.
Engine range: 3.0L - 3.6L
Maximum engine torque: 280 lb-ft (380 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 450Nm 1st gear / 515 Nm 2nd-6th gears
Gear ratios: MH4
First 4.48
Second 2.87
Third: 1.84
Fourth: 1.41
Fifth 1.00
Sixth 0.74
Reverse: 2.88
Effective Final Drive Ratio: 2.77, (3.39 on SRX and Equinox with 19" tires )
Maximum input speed: Rev 5000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 6500 rpm
5-6 5798 rpm
Maximum gross combined weight:* 2619 kg (5775 lbs) *For reference only. Not applicable to a specific application
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M, (DSC+/-) & L (MU/MD)
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: 6 Variable Bleed Solenoids
Shift quality: 6 Variable Bleed Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 246mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI; 9986153; Spec:GMN10060
Transmission weight: wet: 102.0 - 102.4 kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 9.0L (9.5 qt)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Transfer design: three-axis design
Assembly sites: Warren, Mich.; Ramos, Mexico
Buick LaCrosse Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI

6T40/6T45 Differences


To enable greater torque capacity, the 6T45 features a 1.25-inch-wide output chain, versus a 1-inch-wide chain in the 6T40. The input gear set of the 6T45 uses five pinion gears, versus four pinions for the 6T40. The case of the 6T45 is slightly larger to accommodate the larger chain system and includes enhanced case ribbing for additional strength.

On-Axis Design


The 6T40/6T45 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow mechanical control between shifts, but also take up more space and add components to the transmission. The 6T40/6T45 features "clutch-to-clutch" controls and advanced electronics to deliver precise shift timing and great driveability. Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, uses a freewheeling mechanisim, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely upon release. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The torque converters in the 6T40 (205 mm) and 6T45 (236 mm) use a single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for underhood packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help isolate engine vibrations and provide smooth torque converter clutch apply and release operation.

"IX" Gear Pump


A compact on-axis, fixed-displacement IX gear-type fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for shifting and lubrication. The pump features an IX gear (Drive/Driven) with a machined crescent in the pocket to reduce internal leakage and optimize hydraulic efficiency. The inlet jet nozzle feature in the IX gear-type pump provides for increased pump suction pressure, which helps optimize noise and vibration characteristics.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the helical gears are ground and honed to ensure precise dimensional control. With good dimensional control, the transmission operates with exceptional quietness.



HYDRA-MATIC 6T40 (MH8) SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC

HYDRA-MATIC 6T40 (MH8,MHB) SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC

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Overview

Six-speed automatic transmissions are integral in GM's initiative to offer vehicles with excellent fuel economy and driveability. Designed for FWD and AWD applications, they are used in many of GM's newest and most popular models. The 6T40 (MH8, MHB) and 6T45 (MH7, MHC) share many components. The 6T45 is rated for greater torque capacity due to specific component enhancements over the 6T40. Each is part of GM's family of technologically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch.
Maximum Engine power ( hp/kW ) 180 hp ( 134 kW )
Maximum engine torque: 177 lb-ft (240 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 277 lb-ft (375 Nm) - All gears
Gear ratios: MH8
First 4.58
Second 2.96
Third: 1.91
Fourth: 1.45
Fifth 1.00
Sixth 0.75
Reverse: 2.94
Final Drive Ratio: 3.87
Maximum input speed: Rev 4000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 7000 rpm
5-6 6000 rpm (corresponds to 4476 rpm in 6th after the shift is complete)
Maximum input speed in 6th: 4476 rpm
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 1996 kg (4400 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 236mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: wet: 82 kg (180.4 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): 7.77L (6.56 kg)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: Line Pressure
Transfer design: Two-axis design, Output Chain
Assembly sites: GMK (Korea), SGM (China), SLP (Mexico), TTO (Toledo).
Applications: Chevrolet Cruze
Chevrolet Sonic
Buick Encore
Buick Regal (Fleet Only)
Verano CX, CXL
Buick Verano CX, Buick Verano CXL Engine
ECOTEC-2.4L I-4 VVT DI
Buick Encore
1.4L DOHC 1-4 Turbo
Buick Regal (Fleet only)
ECOTEC-2.4L I-4 VVT DI
Chevrolet Cruze Engine
1.4L DOHC I-4 Turbo
Chevrolet Sonic (5 Dr., 4 Dr.)
1.4L DOHC I-4 Turbo

6T40/6T45 Differences


To enable greater torque capacity, the 6T45 features a 1.25-inch-wide output chain, versus a 1-inch-wide chain in the 6T40. The input gear set of the 6T45 uses five pinion gears, versus four pinions for the 6T40. The case of the 6T45 is slightly larger to accommodate the larger chain system and includes enhanced case ribbing for additional strength.

On-Axis Design


The 6T40/6T45 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow mechanical control between shifts, but also take up more space and add components to the transmission. The 6T40/6T45 features "clutch-to-clutch" controls and advanced electronics to deliver precise shift timing and great driveability. Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, uses a freewheeling mechanisim, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely upon release. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The torque converters in the 6T40 (205 mm) and 6T45 (236 mm) use a single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for underhood packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help isolate engine vibrations and provide smooth torque converter clutch apply and release operation.

"IX" Gear Pump


A compact on-axis, fixed-displacement IX gear-type fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for shifting and lubrication. The pump features an IX gear (Drive/Driven) with a machined crescent in the pocket to reduce internal leakage and optimize hydraulic efficiency. The inlet jet nozzle feature in the IX gear-type pump provides for increased pump suction pressure, which helps optimize noise and vibration characteristics.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the helical gears are ground and honed to ensure precise dimensional control. With good dimensional control, the transmission operates with exceptional quietness.


HYDRA-MATIC 6T40 (MHH) SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC (eAssist)

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Overview

The special MHH eAssist version of the 6T40 transmission uses electrification to increase fuel economy. The added electric power provided by the eAssist system allows for higher gearing which improves steady state efficiency without compromising acceleration, performance or driveability. The eAssist system provides electric assistance at cruising speeds, allowing the driver to accelerate lightly or ascend mild grades and minimize transmission downshifting.

An auxiliary, electric oil pump is added to the 6T40 to keep the transmission launch clutch primed when the engine shuts off at a stop. That keeps the transmission ready to perform when the driver accelerates for a seamless, uncompromised driving experience.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch and an auxiliary, electric-driven transmission oil pump.
Maximum Engine power ( hp/kW ) 180 Hp (134 kW) (gas)
Maximum engine torque: 177 lb.-ft. (240 Nm) (gas)
Maximum gearbox torque: 277 lb.-ft (375 Nm) (gas)
Gear ratios: MHH
First 4.584
Second 2.964
Third: 1.912
Fourth: 1.446
Fifth 1.00
Sixth 0.746
Reverse: 2.94
Final Drive Ratio: 3.87
Maximum input speed: Rev 4000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 7000 rpm
5-6 6000 rpm
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2260 kg (4982 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 236mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: wet: 90 kg (198 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): 8.12L (6.86 kg)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: Line Pressure
Transfer design: Two-axis design, Output Chain
Assembly sites: TTO (Toledo).
Applications:: Buick Regal
Buick LaCrosse
Chevrolet Impala
Chevrolet Malibu
Buick LaCrosse Engine
ECOTEC-2.4L VVT DI eAssist
Buick Regal
ECOTEC-2.4L VVT DI eAssist
Chevrolet Malibu Engine
ECOTEC-2.4L VVT DI eAssist
Chevrolet Impala Engine
ECOTEC-2.4L VVT DI eAssist

6T40/6T45 Differences


To enable greater torque capacity, the 6T45 features a 1.25-inch-wide output chain, versus a 1-inch-wide chain in the 6T40. The input gear set of the 6T45 uses five pinion gears, versus four pinions for the 6T40. The case of the 6T45 is slightly larger to accommodate the larger chain system and includes enhanced case ribbing for additional strength.

On-Axis Design


The 6T40/6T45 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow mechanical control between shifts, but also take up more space and add components to the transmission. The 6T40/6T45 features "clutch-to-clutch" controls and advanced electronics to deliver precise shift timing and great driveability. Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, uses a freewheeling mechanisim, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely upon release. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The torque converters in the 6T40 (205 mm) and 6T45 (236 mm) use a single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for underhood packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help isolate engine vibrations and provide smooth torque converter clutch apply and release operation.

"IX" Gear Pump


A compact on-axis, fixed-displacement IX gear-type fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for shifting and lubrication. The pump features an IX gear (Drive/Driven) with a machined crescent in the pocket to reduce internal leakage and optimize hydraulic efficiency. The inlet jet nozzle feature in the IX gear-type pump provides for increased pump suction pressure, which helps optimize noise and vibration characteristics.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the helical gears are ground and honed to ensure precise dimensional control. With good dimensional control, the transmission operates with exceptional quietness.


HYDRA-MATIC 6T45 (MH7 FWD) SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC

Click image to enlarge


Overview

Six-speed automatic transmissions are integral in GM's initiative to offer vehicles with excellent fuel economy and driveability. Designed for FWD and AWD applications, they are used in many of GM's newest and most popular models. The 6T40 (MH8) and 6T45 (MH7, MHC) share many components. The 6T45 is rated for greater torque capacity due to specific component enhancements over the 6T40. Each is part of GM's family of technologically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch.
Maximum Engine power ( hp/kW ) 215 hp ( 160 kW )
Maximum engine torque: 232 lb-ft (315 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 314 lb-ft (425 Nm) - All gears
Gear ratios: MH7
First 4.584
Second 2.964
Third: 1.912
Fourth: 1.446
Fifth 1.00
Sixth 0.746
Reverse: 2.94
Final Drive Ratio: 3.23
Maximum input speed: Rev 7000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 7000 rpm
5-6 7000 rpm
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2200 kg (4850 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 236mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: wet: 84 kg (184.8 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): 8.12L (6.86 kg)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: Line Pressure
Transfer design: Two-axis design, Output Chain
Assembly sites: GMK (Korea), SGM (China), SLP (Mexico), TTO (Toledo).
Applications: Chevrolet Equinox
Chevrolet Impala
Chevrolet Captiva Sport
GMC Terrain
Chevrolet Captiva Sport (Fleet only) Engine
ECOTEC-2.4L I-4 VVT DI
Chevrolet Impala Engine
LGE-LKW-2.5 Two-Step Valvetrain
Chevrolet Equinox
ECOTEC-2.4L I-4 VVT DI
GMC Terrain Engine
ECOTEC-2.4L I-4 VVT DI

6T40/6T45 Differences


To enable greater torque capacity, the 6T45 features a 1.25-inch-wide output chain, versus a 1-inch-wide chain in the 6T40. The input gear set of the 6T45 uses five pinion gears, versus four pinions for the 6T40. The case of the 6T45 is slightly larger to accommodate the larger chain system and includes enhanced case ribbing for additional strength.

On-Axis Design


The 6T40/6T45 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow mechanical control between shifts, but also take up more space and add components to the transmission. The 6T40/6T45 features "clutch-to-clutch" controls and advanced electronics to deliver precise shift timing and great driveability. Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, uses a freewheeling mechanisim, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely upon release. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The torque converters in the 6T40 (205 mm) and 6T45 (236 mm) use a single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for underhood packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help isolate engine vibrations and provide smooth torque converter clutch apply and release operation.

"IX" Gear Pump


A compact on-axis, fixed-displacement IX gear-type fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for shifting and lubrication. The pump features an IX gear (Drive/Driven) with a machined crescent in the pocket to reduce internal leakage and optimize hydraulic efficiency. The inlet jet nozzle feature in the IX gear-type pump provides for increased pump suction pressure, which helps optimize noise and vibration characteristics.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the helical gears are ground and honed to ensure precise dimensional control. With good dimensional control, the transmission operates with exceptional quietness.


HYDRA-MATIC 6T45 (MHC AWD) SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC

Click image to enlarge


Overview

Six-speed automatic transmissions are integral in GM's initiative to offer vehicles with excellent fuel economy and driveability. Designed for FWD and AWD applications, they are used in many of GM's newest and most popular models. The 6T40 (MH8) and 6T45 (MH7, MHC) share many components. The 6T45 is rated for greater torque capacity due to specific component enhancements over the 6T40. Each is part of GM's family of technologically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch.
Maximum Engine power ( hp/kW ) 215 hp ( 160 kW )
Maximum engine torque: 232 lb-ft (315 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 314 lb-ft (425 Nm) - All gears
Gear ratios: MHC
First 4.584
Second 2.964
Third: 1.912
Fourth: 1.446
Fifth 1.00
Sixth 0.746
Reverse: 2.94
Final Drive Ratio: 3.23
Maximum input speed: Rev 7000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 7000 rpm
5-6 7000 rpm
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2200 kg (4850 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 236mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: wet: 84 kg (184.8 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): 8.12L (6.86 kg)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: Line Pressure
Transfer design: Two-axis design, Output Chain
Assembly sites: GMK (Korea), SGM (China), SLP (Mexico), TTO (Toledo), STC (St. Catharines)
Applications: Chevrolet Equinox, GMC Terrain
Chevrolet Equinox Engine
ECOTEC-2.4L I-4 VVT DI
GMC Terrain Engine
ECOTEC-2.4L I-4 VVT DI

On-Axis Design


Instead of "folding" the transmission around the end of a transversely mounted engine, which has been one of the dominant GM transaxle design conventions, the 6T30 contains all of the gearing on the engine crankshaft centerline. The advantages of this layout enables a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow accurate timing between shifts, but also take up more space and add more components to the transmission. Through electronic controls, the clutch-to-clutch concept of the 6T30 delivers optimal shift timing.

Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with a precise clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, however, is a freewheeling action, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the number of brake applies for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The torque converter in the 6T30 uses a single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible for packaging advantages. The single-plate converter clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help reduce engine vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

IX Gear Pump


A compact on-axis, fixed-displacement IX gear-type fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for shifting and lubrication. The pump features an IX gear (Drive/Driven) with a machined crescent in the pocket to reduce internal leakage and optimizes hydraulic efficiency. The inlet jet nozzle feature in the IX gear-type pump provides increased pump suction velocity, which helps optimize noise and vibration characteristics.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the transmissions' helical gears are ground and honed to ensure precise dimensions and tolerances. With closer tolerances, the gears are less prone to characteristic whining or humming, allowing the transmission to operate with exceptional quietness.

Unique Input Shaft Bushings


The input shaft requires no machining for grooves to contain fluid seals, which allows the shaft to retain maximum strength for its size and minimize cost.


2012 HYDRA-MATIC 6T30 (MH9) SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC

Click image to enlarge


Overview

Six-speed automatic transmissions are integral in GM's initiative to offer vehicles with excellent fuel economy and the Hydra-Matic 6T30 transmission delivers on that promise. Designed for compact FWD applications, the 6T30 is part of GM's family of technologically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics. Shared traits between the versions – and other Hydra-Matic six-speeds – reduce complexity, size and mass, including clutch-to-clutch operation that enables the six-speed to be packaged into approximately the same space of a four-speed automatic.

Because of the wide ratio spread, first gear is a very high ratio, which provides brisk acceleration from a stop. Sixth gear, however, is an overdrive ratio, which keeps the engine revolutions lower for highway cruising, reducing engine friction losses and optimizing fuel economy.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch.
Maximum Engine power ( hp/kW ) 140 hp (104 kW) (gas) | 95 hp (71 kW) (diesel)
Maximum engine torque: 129 lb-ft. (175 Nm) (gas) | 147 lb-ft. (200 Nm) (diesel)
Maximum gearbox torque: 184 lb-ft. (250 Nm) (gas)
Gear ratios: MH9
First 4.449
Second 2.908
Third: 1.893
Fourth: 1.446
Fifth 1.00
Sixth 0.742
Reverse: 2.871
Final Drive Ratio: 3.47
Maximum input speed: Rev 3000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 7000 rpm
5-6 5880 rpm
Maximum input in 6th gear: 4364 rpm
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 1933 kg (4262 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 220mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: wet: 71.5 kg (157.6 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): 7.6L
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: Line Pressure
Transfer design: Two-axis design, Output Chain
Assembly sites: GMK (Korea), SGM (China), TTO (Toledo).
Applications: Chevrolet Cruze
Chevrolet Sonic
Chevrolet Sonic (5 Dr., 4 Dr.) Engine
1.8L DOHC I-4
1.8L DOHC I-4
Chevrolet Cruze Engine
1.8L DOHC I-4
1.8L DOHC I-4

On-Axis Design


Instead of "folding" the transmission around the end of a transversely mounted engine, which has been one of the dominant GM transaxle design conventions, the 6T50 contains all of the gearing on the engine crankshaft centerline. The advantages of this layout enables a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow accurate timing between shifts, but also take up more space and add more components to the transmission. Through electronic controls, the clutch-to-clutch concept of the 6T50 delivers optimal shift timing.

Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with a precise clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, however, is a freewheeling action, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the number of brake applies for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The torque converter in the 6T50 uses a single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible for packaging advantages. The single-plate converter clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help reduce engine vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

IX Gear Pump


A compact on-axis, fixed-displacement IX gear-type fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for shifting and lubrication. The pump features an IX gear (Drive/Driven) with a machined crescent in the pocket to reduce internal leakage and optimizes hydraulic efficiency. The inlet jet nozzle feature in the IX gear-type pump provides increased pump suction velocity, which helps optimize noise and vibration characteristics.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the transmissions' helical gears are ground and honed to ensure precise dimensions and tolerances. With closer tolerances, the gears are less prone to characteristic whining or humming, allowing the transmission to operate with exceptional quietness.

Unique Input Shaft Bushings


The input shaft requires no machining for grooves to contain fluid seals, which allows the shaft to retain maximum strength for its size and minimize cost.


HYDRA-MATIC 6T50 (MHJ - AWD) SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC

Click image to enlarge


Overview

Six-speed automatic transmissions are integral in GM's initiative to offer vehicles with excellent fuel economy and the Hydra-Matic 6T50 delivers on that promise. Designed for FWD and AWD applications, the 6T50 is part of GM's family of technologically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics. Shared features between the versions – and other Hydra-Matic six-speeds – reduce complexity, size and mass. Clutch-to-clutch operation enables the six-speed to be packaged into approximately the same space of a four-speed automatic.

Because of the wide ratio spread, first gear is a very high ratio, which provides brisk acceleration from a stop. Sixth gear is an overdrive ratio which lowers engine revolutions for quiet highway cruising, reducing engine friction losses and optimizing fuel economy.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch.
Maximum Engine power ( hp/kW ) 260 hp (194 kW) (Gas)
Maximum engine torque: 258 lb-ft.(350 Nm) (Gas)
Maximum gearbox torque:  
Gear ratios: MHJ
First 4.58
Second 2.96
Third: 1.91
Fourth: 1.45
Fifth 1.00
Sixth 0.75
Reverse: 2.94
Final Drive Ratio: 2.89
Maximum input speed: Rev 4000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 7000 rpm
5-6 6000 rpm
Maximum gross vehicle weight:* 2495 kg (5500 lbs) *For reference only. Not applicable to a specific application
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 236mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: wet: 86.6 kg (191 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): 8.12L (6.86 kg)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: Line Pressure
Transfer design: Two-axis design, Output Chain
Assembly sites: GMK (Korea), SGM (China), SLP (Mexico)
Chevrolet Captiva Sport Engine
3.0L V-6 VVT DI

On-Axis Design


Instead of "folding" the transmission around the end of a transversely mounted engine, which has been one of the dominant GM transaxle design conventions, the 6T50 contains all of the gearing on the engine crankshaft centerline. The advantages of this layout enables a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow accurate timing between shifts, but also take up more space and add more components to the transmission. Through electronic controls, the clutch-to-clutch concept of the 6T50 delivers optimal shift timing.

Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with a precise clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, however, is a freewheeling action, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the number of brake applies for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The torque converter in the 6T50 uses a single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible for packaging advantages. The single-plate converter clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help reduce engine vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

IX Gear Pump


A compact on-axis, fixed-displacement IX gear-type fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for shifting and lubrication. The pump features an IX gear (Drive/Driven) with a machined crescent in the pocket to reduce internal leakage and optimizes hydraulic efficiency. The inlet jet nozzle feature in the IX gear-type pump provides increased pump suction velocity, which helps optimize noise and vibration characteristics.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the transmissions' helical gears are ground and honed to ensure precise dimensions and tolerances. With closer tolerances, the gears are less prone to characteristic whining or humming, allowing the transmission to operate with exceptional quietness.

Unique Input Shaft Bushings


The input shaft requires no machining for grooves to contain fluid seals, which allows the shaft to retain maximum strength for its size and minimize cost.


HYDRA-MATIC 6T50 (MHK - FWD) SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC

Click image to enlarge


Overview

Six-speed automatic transmissions are integral in GM's initiative to offer vehicles with excellent fuel economy and the Hydra-Matic 6T50 delivers on that promise. Designed for FWD and AWD applications, the 6T50 is part of GM's family of technologically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics. Shared features between the versions – and other Hydra-Matic six-speeds – reduce complexity, size and mass. Clutch-to-clutch operation enables the six-speed to be packaged into approximately the same space of a four-speed automatic.

Because of the wide ratio spread, first gear is a very high ratio, which provides brisk acceleration from a stop. Sixth gear is an overdrive ratio which lowers engine revolutions for quiet highway cruising, reducing engine friction losses and optimizing fuel economy.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch.
Maximum Engine power ( hp/kW ) 260 hp (194 kW) (Gas)
Maximum engine torque: 258 lb-ft.(350 Nm) (Gas)
Maximum gearbox torque: 313 lb-ft. (425 Nm) (Gas)
Gear ratios: MHK
First 4.584
Second 2.964
Third: 1.912
Fourth: 1.446
Fifth 1.00
Sixth 0.746
Reverse: 2.94
Final Drive Ratio: 3.23
Maximum input speed: Rev 4000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 7000 rpm
5-6 6000 rpm
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2495 kg (5500 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 236mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: wet: 86.3 kg (190.3 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): 8.12L (6.86 kg)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: Line Pressure
Transfer design: Two-axis design, Output Chain
Assembly sites: GMK (Korea), SGM (China), SLP (Mexico), TTO (Toledo), STC (St. Catharines)
Applications:: Buick Verano CXL
Buick Verano CXL Engine
ECOTEC-2.0L I-4 Turbo

Single Motor EV Driving


In this mode, the primary traction motor provides all propulsion at lower vehicle speeds and hard accelerations, drawing all of its energy from the battery. The ring gear is locked and the generator/motor is decoupled from both the engine and gear-set. The traction motor can use up to 111 kilowatts of power and deliver 273 pound-feet of smooth, direct torque to provide spirited off-the-line acceleration.

Two Motor EV Driving


As vehicle speed increases, the ring gear is unlocked and coupled to the generator/motor. This allows the two motors to work in tandem to provide blended output with higher electrical efficiency. Using the blended output of the slower running motors allowed the team to extract up to two extra miles of pure electric operating range in highway driving.

Single Motor Extended-Range Driving


Once the battery has reached its minimum state of charge, the 1.4-liter engine is coupled to the motor/generator via the third clutch. At lower speeds and hard accelerations the Volt is propelled by the traction motor alone with the ring gear locked. The engine-driven generator and battery provides electricity to the traction motor via the inverter. On an average basis, the engine-driven generator will maintain the battery at a minimum state of charge for extended range operation.

Since the most efficient way to charge the Volt's battery is to plug it in, the generator is only used to maintain minimum battery state of charge. If the battery is drawn down below the minimum level during acceleration or when mountain mode is engaged, the generator will charge the battery up to its minimum state of charge and then maintain it there.

Two Motor Extended-Range Combined Driving


The blended two motor electric propulsion strategy used at higher speeds in EV driving has also been adapted for extended-range driving. The clutches that connect the generator/motor to both the engine and the ring gear are engaged, combining the engine and both motors to drive the Volt via the planetary gear set. All of the propulsion energy is seamlessly blended via the planetary gear and sent to the final drive.

By seamlessly blending power from the engine and two electric motors, this sophisticated technology allows the Volt to achieve 10-15 percent better efficiency at highway speeds than would have been possible by using only the single traction motor. At the same time, the Volt always delivers a solid electric driving experience, even in extended range driving, by utilizing the large battery for full electric launches even during brisk accelerations.


Electric Drive Unit - MKA

Click image to enlarge


Overview

Unlike most battery electric vehicles, which use a single motor with a fixed reduction gear that steps down the motor speed to synchronize with the wheel speed, the Chevrolet Volt uses a unique electric drive unit to boost efficiency. The efficiency of any electric motor always drops off as it approaches its maximum rotational speed. The Volt drive unit consists of two motors, three clutches and a planetary gear set that improve overall efficiency by reducing the combined rotational speed of the electric motors. This configuration reduces battery drain at highway speeds, adding up to two miles of additional EV range.

The Volt's motors and gear-set are mounted in-line with the industry's first range-extending internal combustion engine. Two of the clutches are used to either lock the ring gear of the planetary gear-set or connect it to the generator/motor depending on the mode. The third clutch connects the internal combustion engine to the generator/motor to provide range extension capability.

Type: Electric drive unit with integrated electric motors.
Maximum Engine power ( hp/kW ) 62 kW @ 4800 rpm
Maximum engine torque: 126 Nm
Maximum gearbox torque: 370 Nm
Gear ratios: MKA
Final Drive Ratio 2.16
Maximum Validated Weights: ( Target ) 1700 kg (3750 lb)
Shift-position quadrant: P,R,N,D,L
Case description: 3-Piece
Case material: Die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Continuously varible.
Shift quality: Synchronous shifting
Individual Electric Motor Power Generator = 55 kW, Traction Motor = 111 kW
Individual Electric Motor Torque: Traction Motor = 273 lb-ft / 370 Nm
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: Wet: 170kg ( 374lb )
Pressure taps available: Line Pressure
Assembly Site: GMPT Ramos, Mexico
Available Control Features: Pure Electric Operation
Extended Range Electric Operation
Sport Mode
Mountain Mode
Vehicle Braking Energy Recovery via Electric Regeneration.
Applications: Chevrolet Volt Extended Range Electric Vehicle
Cadillac ELR Extended Range Electric Vehicle
Chevrolet Volt Engine
1.4L DOHC I-4
Cadillac ELR Engine
1.4L DOHC I-4

Gearsets tailored to enhance the performance of specific applications


The Corvette Grand Sport uses the MZ6 version of the TR6060, with higher ratios in first, second and third gears than the MM6 version used in the base Corvette and Z06, as well as a lower-ratio fifth gear to increase the vehicle's top speed. Corvette ZR1 uses the MH3 version of the transmission with a unique gearset, which features the closest-ratio gearset designed to optimize on-track performance.

The MG9 variant for the Cadillac CTS-V has a similar gearset to the MZ6 in the Corvette Grand Sport, but the gears were redesigned to handle the supercharged 6.2L's (LSA) greater torque. A transmission pump is standard with the MG9 and a front bell was also incorporated into the front adaptor to improve powertrain bending strength. Both the MH3 of the Corvette ZR1 and the MG9 use a twin-plate clutch to handle their respective engines' high torque output. The M10 version used in the Camaro SS also features a transmission pump.

Second Gear Synchronizers Using Carbon Material


The change to carbon material on the second gear synchronizer will improve the durability of the synchronizer. Carbon also protects the synchronizer during WOT shifts with the wheels spinning. The shift feel improvements made in 2008 are refined further with the implementation of the carbon material.

Second Gear Synchronizer Design with Advanced and Asymmetric Teeth


Implementing advanced and asymmetric teeth on the second gear synchronizer system improves the shifting action of the transmission during cold temperatures. This is accomplished by the advanced and asymmetric teeth contacting the second gear dog ring in less distance and with increased stopping power. The shift feel is significantly improved in cold weather. This design also improves the warm shifting comfort.

S-Tube Transmission Pump Pick-Up


Some versions of the TR6060 incorporate a unique "S"-tube transmission fluid pump pick-up to maintain an acceptable fluid temperature during limit handling and on-track events. The "S" tube is lengthened to put the pick-up point farther rearward in the fluid sump; and secondly, the tube has an S-shape to put the pick-up location in the middle of the sump, rather than offset slightly to the left.



Overview

The Tremec TR6060's are the six-speed manual transmissions found in GM's highest-performing cars. Along with the capability to stand up to some of the highest-output V-8 engines in the industry, the TR6060 delivers a great driving feel, with short throws, smooth gear synchronization and great overall shift feel with little or no vibration.

Design features of the TR6060 include a combination of double-cone and triple-cone synchronizers on all gears. Synchronizers act like clutches to speed up or slow down a gear that is being shifted to. Double-cone synchronizers have two friction surfaces to effect this gear acceleration, and triple-cone synchronizers have three friction surfaces. The greater the friction surface, the easier the transmission is to shift.

Type: Rear wheel drive, six-speed manual overdrive transmission
Engine range: LS3 426 hp
Maximum engine torque: 420 lb-ft ( 569 Nm )
Maximum gearbox torque: 430 lb-ft ( 580 Nm )
Gear ratios: M10
First: 3.01
Second: 2.07
Third: 1.43
Fourth: 1.00
Fifth: 0.84
Sixth: 0.57
Reverse: 3.28
Final Drive Ratio: 3.450 (rear axle ratio)
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 3860 lb ( 1755 kg )
Case material: Aluminum
Center distance: 85 mm
Fluid type: Texaco ATF Type III 1863
Transmission weight: Wet: 66.3 kg (146.2 lb )
Fluid capacity (approximate): Dry: 3.45L +/- 0.06L, ( 117 oz +/- 2 oz. )
Fluid capacity (approx): with cooler line Dry: 3.94L +/- 0.06L, ( 133 oz +/- 2 oz. ) with cooler line fill
Power take off: No
Applications: Chevrolet Camaro SS
Chevrolet Camaro SS (Coupe, Convertible) Engine
"LS3" - 6.2L V-8

Gearsets tailored to enhance the performance of specific applications


The Corvette Grand Sport uses the MZ6 version of the TR6060, with higher ratios in first, second and third gears than the MM6 version used in the base Corvette and Z06, as well as a lower-ratio fifth gear to increase the vehicle's top speed. Corvette ZR1 uses the MH3 version of the transmission with a unique gearset, which features the closest-ratio gearset designed to optimize on-track performance.

The MG9 variant for the Cadillac CTS-V has a similar gearset to the MZ6 in the Corvette Grand Sport, but the gears were redesigned to handle the supercharged 6.2L's (LSA) greater torque. A transmission pump is standard with the MG9 and a front bell was also incorporated into the front adaptor to improve powertrain bending strength. Both the MH3 of the Corvette ZR1 and the MG9 use a twin-plate clutch to handle their respective engines' high torque output. The M10 version used in the Camaro SS also features a transmission pump.

Second Gear Synchronizers Using Carbon Material


The change to carbon material on the second gear synchronizer will improve the durability of the synchronizer. Carbon also protects the synchronizer during WOT shifts with the wheels spinning. The shift feel improvements made in 2008 are refined further with the implementation of the carbon material.

Second Gear Synchronizer Design with Advanced and Asymmetric Teeth


Implementing advanced and asymmetric teeth on the second gear synchronizer system improves the shifting action of the transmission during cold temperatures. This is accomplished by the advanced and asymmetric teeth contacting the second gear dog ring in less distance and with increased stopping power. The shift feel is significantly improved in cold weather. This design also improves the warm shifting comfort.

S-Tube Transmission Pump Pick-Up


Some versions of the TR6060 incorporate a unique "S"-tube transmission fluid pump pick-up to maintain an acceptable fluid temperature during limit handling and on-track events. The "S" tube is lengthened to put the pick-up point farther rearward in the fluid sump; and secondly, the tube has an S-shape to put the pick-up location in the middle of the sump, rather than offset slightly to the left.



Overview

The Tremec TR6060's are the six-speed manual transmissions found in GM's highest-performing cars. Along with the capability to stand up to some of the highest-output V-8 engines in the industry, the TR6060 delivers a great driving feel, with short throws, smooth gear synchronization and great overall shift feel with little or no vibration.

Design features of the TR6060 include a combination of double-cone and triple-cone synchronizers on all gears. Synchronizers act like clutches to speed up or slow down a gear that is being shifted to. Double-cone synchronizers have two friction surfaces to effect this gear acceleration, and triple-cone synchronizers have three friction surfaces. The greater the friction surface, the easier the transmission is to shift.

Type: Rear wheel drive, six-speed manual overdrive transmission
Engine range: LSA super charged 555hp
Maximum engine torque: 551 lb-ft ( 747 Nm )
Maximum gearbox torque: 560 lb-ft ( 760 Nm )
Gear ratios: MG9
First: 2.66
Second: 1.78
Third: 1.30
Fourth: 1.00
Fifth: 0.80
Sixth: 0.63
Reverse: 2.90
Final Drive Ratio: 3.730
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 4255 lb ( 1930 kg )
Case material: Aluminum
Center distance: 85 mm
Fluid type: Texaco ATF Type III 1863
Transmission weight: Wet: 65.8 kg (145.1 lb )
Fluid capacity (approximate): Dry: 3.8L +/- 0.06L (4.0 qt) 128 oz. +/- 2 oz, internal pump
Power take off: No
Applications: Cadillac CTS V
Chevrolet Camaro ZL1
Cadillac CTS-V (Coupe, Sedan, Wagon) Engine
"LSA" - 6.2L V-8
Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 (Coupe, Convertible) Engine
"LSA" - 6.2L V-8

Gearsets tailored to enhance the performance of specific applications


The Corvette Grand Sport uses the MZ6 version of the TR6060, with higher ratios in first, second and third gears than the MM6 version used in the base Corvette and Z06, as well as a lower-ratio fifth gear to increase the vehicle's top speed. Corvette ZR1 uses the MH3 version of the transmission with a unique gearset, which features the closest-ratio gearset designed to optimize on-track performance.

The MG9 variant for the Cadillac CTS-V has a similar gearset to the MZ6 in the Corvette Grand Sport, but the gears were redesigned to handle the supercharged 6.2L's (LSA) greater torque. A transmission pump is standard with the MG9 and a front bell was also incorporated into the front adaptor to improve powertrain bending strength. Both the MH3 of the Corvette ZR1 and the MG9 use a twin-plate clutch to handle their respective engines' high torque output. The M10 version used in the Camaro SS also features a transmission pump.

Second Gear Synchronizers Using Carbon Material


The change to carbon material on the second gear synchronizer will improve the durability of the synchronizer. Carbon also protects the synchronizer during WOT shifts with the wheels spinning. The shift feel improvements made in 2008 are refined further with the implementation of the carbon material.

Second Gear Synchronizer Design with Advanced and Asymmetric Teeth


Implementing advanced and asymmetric teeth on the second gear synchronizer system improves the shifting action of the transmission during cold temperatures. This is accomplished by the advanced and asymmetric teeth contacting the second gear dog ring in less distance and with increased stopping power. The shift feel is significantly improved in cold weather. This design also improves the warm shifting comfort.

S-Tube Transmission Pump Pick-Up


Some versions of the TR6060 incorporate a unique "S"-tube transmission fluid pump pick-up to maintain an acceptable fluid temperature during limit handling and on-track events. The "S" tube is lengthened to put the pick-up point farther rearward in the fluid sump; and secondly, the tube has an S-shape to put the pick-up location in the middle of the sump, rather than offset slightly to the left.



Overview

The Tremec TR6060's are the six-speed manual transmissions found in GM's highest-performing cars. Along with the capability to stand up to some of the highest-output V-8 engines in the industry, the TR6060 delivers a great driving feel, with short throws, smooth gear synchronization and great overall shift feel with little or no vibration.

Design features of the TR6060 include a combination of double-cone and triple-cone synchronizers on all gears. Synchronizers act like clutches to speed up or slow down a gear that is being shifted to. Double-cone synchronizers have two friction surfaces to effect this gear acceleration, and triple-cone synchronizers have three friction surfaces. The greater the friction surface, the easier the transmission is to shift.

Tremec TR6060 (ME2)  
Type: Rear wheel drive, six-speed manual overdrive transmission
Engine range: 6.2L SC ( LS9 )
Maximum engine torque: 604 lb-ft ( 819 Nm )
Maximum gearbox torque: 650 lb-ft ( 881 Nm ) 1st-4th, 630 lb-ft ( 855 Nm ) 5th-6th
Gear ratios: ME2
First: 2.26
Second: 1.61
Third: 1.21
Fourth: 1.00
Fifth: 0.72
Sixth: 0.50
Reverse: 3.11
Final Drive Ratio: 3.42
Maximum gross vehicle weight:* 4000 lb ( 1680 kg ) *For reference only. Not applicable to a specific application
Case material: Aluminum
Center distance: 85mm
Fluid type: Texaco ATF Type III 1863
Transmission weight: Wet: 54.9 kg (121 lb )
Fluid capacity (approximate): Dry: 3.8L (4.0 qt) 117 oz.
Power take off: No
Chevrolet Corvette ZR1 Engine
"LS9" - 6.2L V-8

Gearsets tailored to enhance the performance of specific applications


The Corvette Grand Sport uses the MZ6 version of the TR6060, with higher ratios in first, second and third gears than the MM6 version used in the base Corvette and Z06, as well as a lower-ratio fifth gear to increase the vehicle's top speed. Corvette ZR1 uses the MH3 version of the transmission with a unique gearset, which features the closest-ratio gearset designed to optimize on-track performance.

The MG9 variant for the Cadillac CTS-V has a similar gearset to the MZ6 in the Corvette Grand Sport, but the gears were redesigned to handle the supercharged 6.2L's (LSA) greater torque. A transmission pump is standard with the MG9 and a front bell was also incorporated into the front adaptor to improve powertrain bending strength. Both the MH3 of the Corvette ZR1 and the MG9 use a twin-plate clutch to handle their respective engines' high torque output. The M10 version used in the Camaro SS also features a transmission pump.

Second Gear Synchronizers Using Carbon Material


The change to carbon material on the second gear synchronizer will improve the durability of the synchronizer. Carbon also protects the synchronizer during WOT shifts with the wheels spinning. The shift feel improvements made in 2008 are refined further with the implementation of the carbon material.

Second Gear Synchronizer Design with Advanced and Asymmetric Teeth


Implementing advanced and asymmetric teeth on the second gear synchronizer system improves the shifting action of the transmission during cold temperatures. This is accomplished by the advanced and asymmetric teeth contacting the second gear dog ring in less distance and with increased stopping power. The shift feel is significantly improved in cold weather. This design also improves the warm shifting comfort.

S-Tube Transmission Pump Pick-Up


Some versions of the TR6060 incorporate a unique "S"-tube transmission fluid pump pick-up to maintain an acceptable fluid temperature during limit handling and on-track events. The "S" tube is lengthened to put the pick-up point farther rearward in the fluid sump; and secondly, the tube has an S-shape to put the pick-up location in the middle of the sump, rather than offset slightly to the left.



Overview

The Tremec TR6060's are the six-speed manual transmissions found in GM's highest-performing cars. Along with the capability to stand up to some of the highest-output V-8 engines in the industry, the TR6060 delivers a great driving feel, with short throws, smooth gear synchronization and great overall shift feel with little or no vibration.

Design features of the TR6060 include a combination of double-cone and triple-cone synchronizers on all gears. Synchronizers act like clutches to speed up or slow down a gear that is being shifted to. Double-cone synchronizers have two friction surfaces to effect this gear acceleration, and triple-cone synchronizers have three friction surfaces. The greater the friction surface, the easier the transmission is to shift.

Tremec TR6060 (MH3)  
Type: Rear wheel drive, six-speed manual overdrive transmission
Engine range: 6.2L SC ( LS9 )
Maximum engine torque: 604 lb-ft ( 819 Nm )
Maximum gearbox torque: 650 lb-ft ( 881 Nm ) 1st-4th, 630 lb-ft ( 855 Nm ) 5th-6th
Gear ratios: MH3
First: 2.29
Second: 1.61
Third: 1.21
Fourth: 1.00
Fifth: 0.82
Sixth: 0.68
Reverse: 3.11
Final Drive Ratio: 3.42
Maximum gross vehicle weight:* 4000 lb ( 1680 kg ) *For reference only. Not applicable to a specific application
Case material: Aluminum
Center distance: 85mm
Fluid type: Texaco ATF Type III 1863
Transmission weight: Wet: 54.9 kg (121 lb )
Fluid capacity (approximate): Dry: 3.8L (4.0 qt) 117 oz.
Power take off: No
Cadillac CTS-V Engine
"LSA" - 6.2L V-8
Chevrolet Camaro SS / Camaro ZL1 Engine
"LSA" - 6.2L V-8
Chevrolet Corvette / Corvette Grand Sport/ Corvette Z06 / Corvette ZR1
"LS3" - 6.2L V-8
"LS7" - 7.0L V-8
"LS9" - 6.2L V-8
"LS3" - 6.2L V-8

Gearsets tailored to enhance the performance of specific applications


The Corvette Grand Sport uses the MZ6 version of the TR6060, with higher ratios in first, second and third gears than the MM6 version used in the base Corvette and Z06, as well as a lower-ratio fifth gear to increase the vehicle's top speed. Corvette ZR1 uses the MH3 version of the transmission with a unique gearset, which features the closest-ratio gearset designed to optimize on-track performance.

The MG9 variant for the Cadillac CTS-V has a similar gearset to the MZ6 in the Corvette Grand Sport, but the gears were redesigned to handle the supercharged 6.2L's (LSA) greater torque. A transmission pump is standard with the MG9 and a front bell was also incorporated into the front adaptor to improve powertrain bending strength. Both the MH3 of the Corvette ZR1 and the MG9 use a twin-plate clutch to handle their respective engines' high torque output. The M10 version used in the Camaro SS also features a transmission pump.

Second Gear Synchronizers Using Carbon Material


The change to carbon material on the second gear synchronizer will improve the durability of the synchronizer. Carbon also protects the synchronizer during WOT shifts with the wheels spinning. The shift feel improvements made in 2008 are refined further with the implementation of the carbon material.

Second Gear Synchronizer Design with Advanced and Asymmetric Teeth


Implementing advanced and asymmetric teeth on the second gear synchronizer system improves the shifting action of the transmission during cold temperatures. This is accomplished by the advanced and asymmetric teeth contacting the second gear dog ring in less distance and with increased stopping power. The shift feel is significantly improved in cold weather. This design also improves the warm shifting comfort.

S-Tube Transmission Pump Pick-Up


Some versions of the TR6060 incorporate a unique "S"-tube transmission fluid pump pick-up to maintain an acceptable fluid temperature during limit handling and on-track events. The "S" tube is lengthened to put the pick-up point farther rearward in the fluid sump; and secondly, the tube has an S-shape to put the pick-up location in the middle of the sump, rather than offset slightly to the left.




Overview

The Tremec TR6060's are the six-speed manual transmissions found in GM's highest-performing cars. Along with the capability to stand up to some of the highest-output V-8 engines in the industry, the TR6060 delivers a great driving feel, with short throws, smooth gear synchronization and great overall shift feel with little or no vibration.

Design features of the TR6060 include a combination of double-cone and triple-cone synchronizers on all gears. Synchronizers act like clutches to speed up or slow down a gear that is being shifted to. Double-cone synchronizers have two friction surfaces to effect this gear acceleration, and triple-cone synchronizers have three friction surfaces. The greater the friction surface, the easier the transmission is to shift.

Type: Rear wheel drive, six-speed manual overdrive transmission.
Engine range: 6.2L gas (LS3) | 7.0L gas (LS7)
Maximum engine torque: 430 lb-ft ( 580 Nm ) | 470 lb-ft ( 637 Nm )
Maximum gearbox torque: 430 lb-ft ( 580 Nm ) | 500 lb-ft ( 678 Nm )
Gear ratios: MM6
First: 2.664
Second: 1.783
Third: 1.302
Fourth: 1.00
Fifth 0.741
Sixth 0.502
Reverse: 2.903
Final Drive Ratio: 3.42
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 4000 lb ( 1680 kg )
Case material: Aluminum
Center distance:: 85mm
Fluid type: Texaco ATF Type III 1863
Transmission weight: Wet: 54.9 kg (121 lb ) 61.5kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): Dry: 3.8L (4.0 qt) 117 oz.
Power take off: No
Applications: Chevrolet Camaro SS Coupe
Chevrolet Camaro Z/28
Chevrolet Camaro SS (Coupe) Engine
"LS3" - 6.2L V-8
Chevrolet Camaro Z/28 (Coupe)
"LS7" - 7.0L V-8

Gearsets tailored to enhance the performance of specific applications


The Corvette Grand Sport uses the MZ6 version of the TR6060, with higher ratios in first, second and third gears than the MM6 version used in the base Corvette and Z06, as well as a lower-ratio fifth gear to increase the vehicle's top speed. Corvette ZR1 uses the MH3 version of the transmission with a unique gearset, which features the closest-ratio gearset designed to optimize on-track performance.

The MG9 variant for the Cadillac CTS-V has a similar gearset to the MZ6 in the Corvette Grand Sport, but the gears were redesigned to handle the supercharged 6.2L's (LSA) greater torque. A transmission pump is standard with the MG9 and a front bell was also incorporated into the front adaptor to improve powertrain bending strength. Both the MH3 of the Corvette ZR1 and the MG9 use a twin-plate clutch to handle their respective engines' high torque output. The M10 version used in the Camaro SS also features a transmission pump.

Second Gear Synchronizers Using Carbon Material


The change to carbon material on the second gear synchronizer will improve the durability of the synchronizer. Carbon also protects the synchronizer during WOT shifts with the wheels spinning. The shift feel improvements made in 2008 are refined further with the implementation of the carbon material.

Second Gear Synchronizer Design with Advanced and Asymmetric Teeth


Implementing advanced and asymmetric teeth on the second gear synchronizer system improves the shifting action of the transmission during cold temperatures. This is accomplished by the advanced and asymmetric teeth contacting the second gear dog ring in less distance and with increased stopping power. The shift feel is significantly improved in cold weather. This design also improves the warm shifting comfort.

S-Tube Transmission Pump Pick-Up


Some versions of the TR6060 incorporate a unique "S"-tube transmission fluid pump pick-up to maintain an acceptable fluid temperature during limit handling and on-track events. The "S" tube is lengthened to put the pick-up point farther rearward in the fluid sump; and secondly, the tube has an S-shape to put the pick-up location in the middle of the sump, rather than offset slightly to the left.



Overview

The Tremec TR6060's are the six-speed manual transmissions found in GM's highest-performing cars. Along with the capability to stand up to some of the highest-output V-8 engines in the industry, the TR6060 delivers a great driving feel, with short throws, smooth gear synchronization and great overall shift feel with little or no vibration.

Design features of the TR6060 include a combination of double-cone and triple-cone synchronizers on all gears. Synchronizers act like clutches to speed up or slow down a gear that is being shifted to. Double-cone synchronizers have two friction surfaces to effect this gear acceleration, and triple-cone synchronizers have three friction surfaces. The greater the friction surface, the easier the transmission is to shift.

Tremec TR6060 (MZ6)  
Type: Rear wheel drive, six-speed manual overdrive transmission
Engine range: 6.2L ( LS3 )
Maximum engine torque: 430 lb-ft ( 580 Nm )
Maximum gearbox torque: 430 lb-ft ( 580 Nm )
Gear ratios: MZ6
First: 2.97
Second: 2.07
Third: 1.43
Fourth: 1.00
Fifth: 0.71
Sixth: 0.56
Reverse: 3.28
Final Drive Ratio: 3.42
Maximum gross vehicle weight:* 4000 lb ( 1680 kg ) *For reference only. Not applicable to a specific application
Case material: Aluminum
Center distance: 85mm
Fluid type: Texaco ATF Type III 1863
Transmission weight: Wet: 54.9 kg (121 lb )
Fluid capacity (approximate): Dry: 3.8L (4.0 qt) 117 oz.
Power take off: No
Chevrolet Corvette (Cpe., Conv. Gr. Sprt.) Opt. Exhaust
"LS3" - 6.2L V-8

Greater fuel efficiency through reduced spin loss & improved lock-up operation


Hardware and controls reduce the transmission's "spin loss," which means more of the engine's power is channeled to the wheels, allowing the vehicle to do more work with less energy. A low-drag clutch packs helps minimize spin loss, while optimizing lube distribution throughout the transmission eliminates excess oil in spots to reduce spin loss. The Allison 1000's six-speed configuration also contributes to greater fuel economy, with lower engine speed on the highway.

Exhaust Brake System and Cruise Grade Braking


A smart exhaust brake system is a driver-selectable feature using the compression power of the 6.6L Duramax engine to improve vehicle control and reduce brake pad wear. When the exhaust brake is engaged in cruise mode, exhaust cruise grade braking will help the cruise control system maintain the desired vehicle speed when travelling downhill, keeping the driver from having to apply the brakes and exit cruise control to maintain speed. When the exhaust brake is engaged in non-cruise mode, the transmission and the exhaust brake deliver the correct amount of braking to assist in vehicle control, regardless of vehicle load.

Driver Shift Control


In addition to exhaust grade braking, the Allison 1000 offers driver shift control (DSC), which allows the driver to manually select and hold a desired gear to satisfy a variety of driving scenarios. The easy tap-up/tap-down shift control holds the desired gear, but also protects the engine by inhibiting downshifts when the engine speed is above allowable rpm limits.

Tow/Haul Mode


The driver-selectable tow/haul mode provides greater driver control and towing performance in certain conditions, such as steep grades. When engaged, shift schedules are optimized so that the system locks the torque converter earlier to minimize heat gain and to take greater advantage of engine braking when vehicle is traveling downhill.

Cab Warm-Up


A popular feature among customers in cold climates, the exclusive cab warm-up mode is offered with the Allison 1000. When engaged by the driver via the driver information center on the instrument panel, the engine speed is raised and the transmission increases the load on the engine, which allows the engine to produce heat more quickly and warm up the truck's interior faster.


ALLISON 1000 SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC (MW7)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

With more than decade of durability behind it, the Allison 1000 is a proven and popular transmission among heavy-duty truck customers. It's strength handles the higher torque capability of the powerful 6.6L Duramax turbo diesel engine. It's designed to improve fuel economy and provide seamless operation of the exhaust brake system.

To match the increased torque output of the 6.6L Duramax diesel, the Allison 1000 has structural improvements that include increased strength for the input and main housings, a new, higher-capacity torque converter and increased clutch and shaft torque capabilities. The transmission handles class-leading input torque and supports the new heavy-duty pickups' increased GVWR.

Type: Six speed, rear-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic, double overdrive transmission with torque converter clutch and park pawl
Engine range: 6.6L
Maximum Input Torque: 765 lb-ft
Maximum Input Power: 397 hp
Gear ratios: MW7
First 3.094
Second 1.809
Third: 1.406
Fourth: 1.000
Fifth 0.711
Sixth 0.614
Reverse: 4.480
Maximum shift speed 3300 rpm
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: GVW
12,000 lb - 3600 series
11,400 lb - 3500 dually series
9,900 lb - 3500 non-dually series
9,200 lb - 2500 HD series
GCW
23,500 lb - 3500 dually, 3600 series
22,000 lb - 3500 non-dually
22,000 lb - 2500HD
6-position quadrant: P,R,N,D,M,1
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: (3) on/off solenoids
Shift quality: Variable bleed solenoid control / adaptive shifts
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid Control
Converter size: 310mm (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: dry: 150 kg (330 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): shallow pan: 12L (13 qt.) (dry)
Power take off: provision available
Pressure taps available: main pressure
Assembly Site:: Baltimore, MD
Available Features:: Tapshift Range Selection Mode
Grade Braking
Cruise Grade Braking
Tow/Haul Mode
Shift Stabilization
Adaptive Shift Controls
Heater Performance Mode
Low Traction Mode
Exhaust Grade Braking
Exhaust Cruise Grade Braking
Applications: Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra 2500HD, 3500, 3600 Series
Chevrolet Silverado HD Engine
DURAMAX-6.6L V-8 Turbo
GMC Sierra HD Engine
DURAMAX-6.6L V-8 Turbo

Modular Design


The modular concept of the Hydra-Matic 6L45 centers on the desire for common components and manufacturing tooling for four different size variants of the six-speed family. All versions use three gearsets: a simple input planetary gearset and two output gearsets, one of which is a compound gearset with three pairs of two pinion gears on the output carrier, one pair meshing with the sun gear and the other with the ring gear.

Performance Algorithm Braking


Performance Algorithm Shifting is available on some applications. Performance Algorithm Shifting (PAS) monitors how assertively the driver is using engine output to determine at what engine speed to upshift or downshift.

Driver Shift Control


Driver Shift Control allows the driver to shift the transmission like a clutchless manual gearbox. Electronic safeguards prevent over-revving should the wrong gear position be accidentally selected.

Advanced Control System


Advances in transmission control modules allow them to exist reliably inside the transmission, where temperatures remain fairly constant compared to a body-mounted module. The transmission and module are assembled together, so no additional steps are necessary during vehicle assembly.

The 6L45's 32-bit transmission control module (TCM) monitors transmission performance and compensates for normal wear in components such as clutch plates, so transmission performance remains consistent for the life of the transmission.


HYDRA-MATIC 6L45 SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC (MYA)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6L45 (MYA) six-speed automatic transmission for rear- and all-wheel-drive vehicles is part of GM's family of fuel-saving, electronically controlled six-speed automatics The modular design of the 6L45 is shared with variants rated for different torque levels to accommodate various engines and vehicle applications. All versions share a unique output gearset configuration that enables it a wider range of ratios than a conventional planetary gearset automatic transmission. This allows the transmission to be tailored for optimal fuel economy while delivering excellent acceleration traits.

The wide overall ratio spread of 6.04:1 allows a "steep" first gear, as well as a very "tall" overdrive top gear for low-rpm highway cruising.

Type: six speed RWD / AWD, electronically controlled automatic overdrive transmission with torque converter clutch. Clutch-to-clutch architecture, with integral Electro / Hydraulic Controls Module
Maximum engine power: 321 bhp ( 239 kw )
Maximum engine torque: 275 lb-ft ( 373 Nm )
Maximum gearbox torque: 405 bhp ( 550 kw )
Gear ratios: MYA
First 4.060
Second 2.370
Third: 1.550
Fourth: 1.160
Fifth 0.850
Sixth 0.670
Reverse: 3.200
Maximum shift speed 7000 rpm
Maximum Validated Weights: ( Target ) GVW: 5620 lb ( 2549 kg ), GCVW: 9300 lb ( 4251kg )
7-position quadrant: P, R, N, D, X, X, X ( X = available calibratable range position )
Case description: OEM 2-piece ( Bell, main case ).
GM - Bell + case + extension
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: (2) Three-way on/off solenoids
Shift quality: Five variable bleed solenoid
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid ECCC
Converter size: 230,240,258 mm ( reference )
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Fluid capacity: w/ 258 & 300mm converter 7.30 kg
Transmission weight: w/ 258 & 300mm converter wet: 77.75-78.16 kg ( 171-172 lb ) estimated
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Assembly Site:: GMPT Strasbourg, France
Available Control Features:: Multiple Shift Patterns ( Selectable )
Driver Shift Control ( Tap Up / Tap Down )
Enhanced Performance Algorithm Shifting ( PAS )
Selectable Tow / Haul Mode
Engine Torque Management On All Shifts
Altitude and Temperature Compensation
Adaptive Shift Time
Neutral Idle
Reverse Lockout
Automatic Grade Braking
Additional Features: OBDII / EOBD
Integral Electro/Hydraulic Controls Module ( Tehcm )
Control Interface Protocol - GMLAN
Applications: Cadillac CTS Sedan, Coupe and Wagon
Chevrolet Caprice PPV
Cadillac ATS
Cadillac ATS Sedan Engine
LGE-LCV-2.5L I-4 NA
LGE-LTG-2.0L I-4 Turbo
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Cadillac CTS Sedan Engine
LGE-LTG-2.0L I-4 Turbo
Cadillac CTS (Coupe, Wagon) Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Cadillac CTS Wagon (Single Exhaust) Engine
3.0L V-6 VVT DI
Chevrolet Caprice PPV Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI

Modular Design


The modular concept of the Hydra-Matic 6L50 centers on the desire for common components and manufacturing tooling for four different size variants of the six-speed family. All versions use three gearsets: a simple input planetary gearset and two output gearsets, one of which is a compound gearset with three pairs of two pinion gears on the output carrier, one pair meshing with the sun gear and the other with the ring gear.

Performance Algorithm Braking


Performance Algorithm Shifting is available on some applications. Performance Algorithm Shifting (PAS) monitors how assertively the driver is using engine output to determine at what engine speed to upshift or downshift.

Driver Shift Control


Driver Shift Control allows the driver to shift the transmission like a clutchless manual gearbox. Electronic safeguards prevent over-revving should the wrong gear position be accidentally selected.

Advanced Control System


Advances in transmission control modules allow them to exist reliably inside the transmission, where temperatures remain fairly constant compared to a body-mounted module. The transmission and module are assembled together, so no additional steps are necessary during vehicle assembly.

The 6L50's 32-bit transmission control module (TCM) monitors transmission performance and compensates for normal wear in components such as clutch plates, so transmission performance remains consistent for the life of the transmission.


HYDRA-MATIC 6L50 SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC (MYB)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6L50 (MYA) six-speed automatic transmission for rear- and all-wheel-drive vehicles is part of GM's family of fuel-saving, electronically controlled six-speed automatics The modular design of the 6L50 is shared with variants rated for different torque levels to accommodate various engines and vehicle applications. All versions share a unique output gearset configuration that enables it a wider range of ratios than a conventional planetary gearset automatic transmission. This allows the transmission to be tailored for optimal fuel economy while delivering excellent acceleration traits.

The wide overall ratio spread of 6.04:1 allows a "steep" first gear, as well as a very "tall" overdrive top gear for low-rpm highway cruising.

Type: six speed RWD / AWD, electronically controlled automatic overdrive transmission with torque converter clutch. Clutch-to-clutch architecture, with integral Electro / Hydraulic Controls Module
Maximum engine power: 315 bhp ( 235 kw )
Maximum engine torque: 332 lb-ft ( 450 Nm )
Maximum gearbox torque: 480 lb-ft ( 651Nm )
Gear ratios: MYB
First 4.060
Second 2.370
Third: 1.550
Fourth: 1.160
Fifth 0.850
Sixth 0.670
Reverse: 3.200
Maximum shift speed 7000 rpm
Maximum Validated Weights: ( Target ) GVW: 6613 lb ( 3000 kg ), GCVW: 12505 lb ( 5672kg )
7-position quadrant: P, R, N, D, X, X, X ( X = available calibratable range position )
Case description: 3-piece ( Bell, main, extension )
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: (2) Three-way on/off solenoids
Shift quality: Five variable bleed solenoid
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid ECCC
Converter size: 240, 258mm ( reference )
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Fluid capacity: w/ 258 & 300mm converter 9.1 kg
Transmission weight: w/ 258 & 300mm converter wet: 85-90 kg ( 187-198 lb ) estimated
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Assembly Site:: GMPT Strasbourg, France
GMPT Toledo, OH
GMPT Silao, MX
Available Control Features:: Multiple Shift Patterns ( Selectable )
Driver Shift Control ( Tap Up / Tap Down )
Enhanced Performance Algorithm Shifting ( PAS )
Selectable Tow / Haul Mode
Engine Torque Management On All Shifts
Altitude and Temperature Compensation
Adaptive Shift Time
Neutral Idle
Reverse Lockout
Automatic Grade Braking
Additional Features: OBDII / EOBD
Integral Electro/Hydraulic Controls Module ( Tehcm )
Control Interface Protocol - GMLAN
Applications: Chevrolet Camaro Coupe and Convertible
Chevrolet Camaro (Coupe, Convertible) Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI

Modular Design


The modular concept of the Hydra-Matic 6L80 centers on the desire for common components and manufacturing tooling for four different size variants of the six-speed family. All versions use three gearsets: a simple input planetary gearset and two output gearsets, one of which is a compound gearset with three pairs of two pinion gears on the output carrier, one pair meshing with the sun gear and the other with the ring gear.

Performance Algorithm Braking


Performance Algorithm Shifting is available on some applications. Performance Algorithm Shifting (PAS) monitors how assertively the driver is using engine output to determine at what engine speed to upshift or downshift.

Driver Shift Control


Driver Shift Control allows the driver to shift the transmission like a clutchless manual gearbox. Electronic safeguards prevent over-revving should the wrong gear position be accidentally selected.

Advanced Control System


Advances in transmission control modules allow them to exist reliably inside the transmission, where temperatures remain fairly constant compared to a body-mounted module. The transmission and module are assembled together, so no additional steps are necessary during vehicle assembly.

The 6L80's 32-bit transmission control module (TCM) monitors transmission performance and compensates for normal wear in components such as clutch plates, so transmission performance remains consistent for the life of the transmission.




HYDRA-MATIC 6L80 SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC (MYC)

HYDRA-MATIC 6L80 SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC (MYC)

HYDRA-MATIC 6L80 SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC (MYC)

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Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6L80 (MYA) six-speed automatic transmission for rear- and all-wheel-drive vehicles is part of GM's family of fuel-saving, electronically controlled six-speed automatics The modular design of the 6L80 is shared with variants rated for different torque levels to accommodate various engines and vehicle applications. All versions share a unique output gearset configuration that enables it a wider range of ratios than a conventional planetary gearset automatic transmission. This allows the transmission to be tailored for optimal fuel economy while delivering excellent acceleration traits.

The wide overall ratio spread of 6.04:1 allows a "steep" first gear, as well as a very "tall" overdrive top gear for low-rpm highway cruising.

Type: Six speed RWD / AWD, electronically controlled automatic overdrive transmission with torque converter clutch. Clutch-to-clutch architecture, with integral Electro / Hydraulic Controls Module
Maximum engine power: 469 bhp ( 349 kW )
Maximum engine torque: 439 lb-ft ( 595 Nm )
Maximum gearbox torque: 664 lb-ft ( 900 Nm )
Gear ratios: MYC
First 4.030
Second 2.360
Third: 1.530
Fourth: 1.150
Fifth 0.850
Sixth 0.670
Reverse: 3.060
Maximum shift speed 6500 rpm
Maximum Validated Weights: ( Target ) GVW: 8600 lb ( 3901 kg ), GCVW: 14000 lb ( 6350 kg )
7-position quadrant: P, R, N, D, X, X, X ( X = available calibratable range position )
Case description: 3-piece ( Bell, main, extension )
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: (2) Three-way on/off solenoids
Shift quality: Five variable bleed solenoid
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid ECCC
Converter size: 300mm ( reference )
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Fluid capacity: w/ 258 & 300mm converter 258mm: 9.7L ( 8.22kg ), 300mm: 11.9L ( 10.1kg )
Transmission weight: w/ 258 & 300mm converter 258mm: Wet: 94-96kg ( 207-211lb )
300mm: Wet: 102-104kg ( 225-229lb )
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Assembly Site:: GMPT Toledo, OH
GMPT Silao, MX
Available Control Features:: Multiple Shift Patterns ( Selectable )
Driver Shift Control ( Tap Up / Tap Down )
Enhanced Performance Algorithm Shifting ( PAS )
Selectable Tow / Haul Mode
Engine Torque Management On All Shifts
Altitude and Temperature Compensation
Adaptive Shift Time
Neutral Idle
Reverse Lockout
Automatic Grade Braking
Additional Features: OBDII / EOBD
Integral Electro/Hydraulic Controls Module ( Tehcm )
Control Interface Protocol - GMLAN
Applications: Chevrolet Corvette
Chevrolet Camaro SS Coupe and Convertible
Chevrolet SS Performance Sedan
Chevrolet Silverado
Chevrolet Suburban
Chevrolet Tahoe
GMC Sierra
GMC Yukon, Yukon Xl
Cadillac Escalade, ESV and EXT
Chevrolet Caprice PPV
Cadillac Escalade, ESV Engine
Vortec 6.2L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Camaro SS (Coupe, Convertible)
"L99" - 6.2L V-8
"LS3" - 6.2L V-8
Chevrolet Caprice PPV
"L77"- 6.0L V-8
Chevrolet Corvette (Coupe, Convertible)
"LT1" - 6.2L V-8
Chevrolet Corvette Z51 (Coupe, Convertible)
"LT1" - 6.2L V-8
Chevrolet SS Performance Sedan
"LS3" - 6.2L V-8
Chevrolet Silverado (All Cabs)
Gen 5 V-8-L83-5.3
Gen 5 V6-LV3-4.3
Chevrolet Silverado (Double, Crew)
Gen 5 V-8-L86-6.2
Chevrolet Suburban
Vortec 5.3L V-8 VVT
Vortec 5.3L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Tahoe
Vortec 5.3L V-8 VVT
GMC Sierra (All Cabs) Engine
Gen 5 V-8-L83-5.3
Gen 5 V6-LV3-4.3
GMC Sierra (Double, Crew)
Gen 5 V-8-L86-6.2
GMC Yukon Denali, Yukon XL Denali
Vortec 6.2L V-8 VVT
GMC Yukon XL
Vortec 5.3L V-8 VVT
GMC Yukon, GMC Yukon XL
Vortec 5.3L V-8 VVT

Modular Design


The modular concept of the Hydra-Matic 6L90 centers on the desire for common components and manufacturing tooling for four different size variants of the six-speed family. All versions use three gearsets: a simple input planetary gearset and two output gearsets, one of which is a compound gearset with three pairs of two pinion gears on the output carrier, one pair meshing with the sun gear and the other with the ring gear.

Performance Algorithm Braking


Performance Algorithm Shifting is available on some applications. Performance Algorithm Shifting (PAS) monitors how assertively the driver is using engine output to determine at what engine speed to upshift or downshift.

Driver Shift Control


Driver Shift Control allows the driver to shift the transmission like a clutchless manual gearbox. Electronic safeguards prevent over-revving should the wrong gear position be accidentally selected.


Advances in transmission control modules allow them to exist reliably inside the transmission, where temperatures remain fairly constant compared to a body-mounted module. The transmission and module are assembled together, so no additional steps are necessary during vehicle assembly.

The 6L90's 32-bit transmission control module (TCM) monitors transmission performance and compensates for normal wear in components such as clutch plates, so transmission performance remains consistent for the life of the transmission.

6L90 vs. 6L80


The 6L90 is a heavy-duty version of the 6L80 six-speed automatic, with a strengthened input gearset that has two additional pinion gears (six in total) and a strengthened output gearset that uses wider gears than the 6L80. Its flexibility extends to the clutches, where the 6L90 has one more clutch plate in each clutch than the 6L80 for heavy-duty applications. There is also a 6L90 version without the additional clutch plate to more closely match application requirements, where appropriate.

The 6L90 shares about 75 percent of the parts as the 6L80, although the case of the 6L90 is 35 mm longer than the 6L80 case. The 6L90's case also accommodates additional fasteners between the transmission and the transfer case for improved driveline noise/vibration performance.


HYDRA-MATIC 6L90 SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC (MYD)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6L90 (MYA) six-speed automatic transmission for rear- and all-wheel-drive vehicles is part of GM's family of fuel-saving, electronically controlled six-speed automatics The modular design of the 6L90 is shared with variants rated for different torque levels to accommodate various engines and vehicle applications. All versions share a unique output gearset configuration that enables it a wider range of ratios than a conventional planetary gearset automatic transmission. This allows the transmission to be tailored for optimal fuel economy while delivering excellent acceleration traits.

The wide overall ratio spread of 6.04:1 allows a "steep" first gear, as well as a very "tall" overdrive top gear for low-rpm highway cruising.

Type: six speed RWD / AWD, electronically controlled automatic overdrive transmission with torque converter clutch. Clutch-to-clutch architecture, with integral Electro / Hydraulic Controls Module
Maximum engine power: 452 bhp ( 337 kW ), Diesel: 300bhp ( 223kW ) - Truck
555 bhp ( 414 kW ) - Passenger car
Maximum engine torque: 531 lb-ft ( 720 Nm ), Diesel: 520 lb-ft ( 705 Nm ) - Truck
550 lb-ft ( 746 Nm ) - Passenger car
Maximum gearbox torque: 885 lb-ft ( 1200 Nm )
Gear ratios: MYD
First 4.030
Second 2.360
Third: 1.530
Fourth: 1.150
Fifth 0.850
Sixth 0.670
Reverse: 3.060
Maximum shift speed 6200 rpm
Maximum Validated Weights: ( Target ) GVW: 15000 lb ( 6803 kg ), GCVW: 21000 lb ( 9525 kg )
7-position quadrant: P, R, N, D, X, X, X ( X = available calibratable range position )
Case description: 3-piece ( Bell, main, extension )
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: (2) Three-way on/off solenoids
Shift quality: Five variable bleed solenoid
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid ECCC
Converter size: 300mm ( reference )
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Fluid capacity: w/ 300mm converter 300mm: 13.0L ( 10.8kg )
Transmission weight: w/ 300mm converter Wet: 109kg ( 240lb ) estimated
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Assembly Site:: GMPT Toledo, OH
GMPT Silao, MX
Available Control Features:: Multiple Shift Patterns ( Selectable )
Driver Shift Control ( Tap Up / Tap Down )
Enhanced Performance Algorithm Shifting ( PAS )
Selectable Tow / Haul Mode
Engine Torque Management On All Shifts
Altitude and Temperature Compensation
Adaptive Shift Time
Neutral Idle
Reverse Lockout
Automatic Grade Braking
Additional Features: OBDII / EOBD
Integral Electro/Hydraulic Controls Module ( Tehcm )
Control Interface Protocol - GMLAN
Applications: Chevrolet Suburban
GMC Yukon XL
Chevrolet Silverado HD
GMC Sierra HD
Cadillac CTS-V
Chevrolet Express
Chevrolet Camaro ZL1
GMC Savana
Cadillac CTS-V Sedan / Coupe / Wagon Engine
"LSA" - 6.2L V-8
Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 Engine
"LSA" - 6.2L V-8
Chevrolet Express CNG (Cargo, Cutaway) Engine
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Express LPG (Cutaway) Engine
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) Engine
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
DURAMAX-6.6L V-8 Turbo
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Engine
Vortec 4.8L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Engine
Vortec 4.8L V-8 VVT
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
DURAMAX-6.6L V-8 Turbo
Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10K GVW Bi-fuel (CNG)
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10K GVW Bi-fuel (CNG)
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10K GVW
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10K GVW
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Suburban
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Savana CNG (Cargo, Cutaway) Engine
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Savana LPG (Cutaway) Engine
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Engine
Vortec 4.8L V-8 VVT
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) Engine
DURAMAX-6.6L V-8 Turbo
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Engine
Vortec 4.8L V-8 VVT
GMC Sierra HD < 10K GVW Bi-fuel (CNG)
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Sierra HD > 10K GVW Bi-fuel (CNG)
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Sierra HD < 10K GVW
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Sierra HD > 10K GVW
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Yukon XL
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT

One-Piece aluminum housing with separate composite bearing plate


The F17 manual transmission has a one-piece, aluminum housing with a separate composite bearing plate and integrates the differential within the compact and lightweight housing.

Lightweight two-shaft design


The two-shaft design of the transmission places all of the gears behind one another, with a housing extension that covers the fifth gear set.

Triple-cone synchronization



F17 FIVE-SPEED MANUAL TRANSMISSION (M26)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

General Motors' F17 5-speed is a robust yet compact five-speed manual transmission for front-wheel drive vehicles with a transversely mounted engine. Its design incorporates the axle differential for easier packaging in smaller vehicles. Premium features include triple-cone synchronizers for first and second gears and a new synchronizer system for a high-quality shift feel. All forward gears are synchronized. All of the forward gears and final drive in the differential are hard-machined for durability.

The F17 uses conventional gear oil and no maintenance is required under normal operating conditions. Fluid changes are recommended for severe duty. A hydraulic clutch eliminates adjustments throughout the lifespan of the transmission.

Type: Front wheel drive, 5 speed with integrated differential
Configuration: Transversal, two shaft
Engine range: FAM 1 Gen 3, 1.8L I4 - Gasoline
Maximum engine torque: 129 lb.-ft. (175Nm) (U18XFR)
Maximum gearbox torque: 140 lb.-ft. (190 Nm)
Center distance: 180 mm
Gear ratios: M26
First: 3.727
Second: 1.960
Third: 1.323
Fourth: 0.946
Fifth: 0.756
Reverse: 3.308
Final Drive Ratio: 3.944 for 1.8Fam1 Sonic application
All forward gears and final drive hard machined
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2050kg (4960 lbs.)
Case material: aluminium, single piece housing with separate bearing plate
Fluid type: BOT 0402 -> MY12 r/c - BOT 303 mod (low viscosity)
Transmission weight: dry: 31.7kg
Fluid capacity: 1.38kg (1.6l)
Synchronization: 1st & 2nd: Triple Cone
3rd/4th/5th: Single Cone
3rd/4th/5th: Single Cone
All forward gears synchronized.
Clutch actuation: Hydraulic or mechanical clutch actuation
Whole Length 365 mm
Shifting System: rod or cable shift system optional
Assembly Site: Aspern; Austria
Applications: Chevrolet Sonic
Chevrolet Sonic (5 Dr., 4 Dr.) Engine
1.8L DOHC I-4 (LUW)
1.8L DOHC I-4 (LWE)


M32 (MF3)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The M32 manual transmission (MF3) is a front wheel drive, six-speed transmission and is part of the M20/32 manual transmission family. It is one of the manual transmissions used in GM's small cars. The M32 manual transmission family features a three-axis transverse layout, with fully synchronized gears and compact packaging. It features higher torque capacity with smooth-running performance.

The design features include triple-cone synchronizer on 1st and 2nd gears, double-cone synchronizers for 3rd and 4th. Single-cone synchronizers for 5th, 6th and reverse.

Type: front wheel drive, six-speed manual transaxle
Configuration: Transversal, three shafts
Engine range: FAM 0 1.4L turbocharged - Gasoline
Maximum engine torque: 200Nm
Maximum gearbox torque: 320Nm; 1st/rev. gear 230Nm; 2nd gear 290Nm
Center distance: 197 mm
Gear ratios: MF3
First: 4.273
Second: 2.158
Third: 1.302
Fourth: 0.959
Fifth: 0.744
Sixth: 0.614
Reverse: 3.818
Final Drive Ratio: 3.833
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2,280kg (5,027lbs.)
Case material: alumnium, 3 piece housing
Fluid type: BOT 0402
Transmission weight: dry: 46,7 kg
Fluid capacity: 1.9L (2.0 qt)
Synchronization: 1st & 2nd: Triple Cone
3rd/4th: Single Cone
5th/6th/rev: Single Cone
Clutch actuation: Hydraulic clutch actuation
Whole Length 334mm
Shifting System: cable shift system
Assembly Site: Aspern; Austria
Applications: Chevrolet Cruze
Chevrolet Cruze Engine
1.4L DOHC I-4 Turbo


Product Highlights

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M32 (MR5)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The M32 manual transmission (MR5) is a front wheel drive, six-speed transmission and is part of the M20/32 manual transmission family. It is one of the manual transmissions used in GM's small cars. The M32 manual transmission family features a three-axis transverse layout, with fully synchronized gears and compact packaging. It features higher torque capacity with smooth-running performance.

The design features include triple-cone synchronizer on 1st and 2nd gears, double-cone synchronizers for 3rd and 4th. Single-cone synchronizers for 5th, 6th and reverse.

Type: front wheel drive, six-speed manual transmission
Configuration: Transversal, three shafts
Engine range: FAM0 1.4L-Turbo - Gasoline
Maximum engine torque: 200Nm
Maximum gearbox torque: 320Nm; 1st/rev. gear 230Nm; 2nd gear 290Nm
Center distance: 197mm
Gear ratios: MR5
First 4.270
Second 2.350
Third: 1.480
Fourth: 1.067
Fifth 0.875
Sixth 0.744
Reverse: 3.820
Final Drive Ratio: 4.176
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2,280kg (5,027 lbs.)
Case material: alumnium, 3 piece housing
Fluid type: BOT 0303-mod (low viscosity oil)
Transmission weight: dry: 46,7 Kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 1.9L (2.0 qt)
Synchronization: 1st & 2nd: Triple Cone
3rd/4th: Single Cone
5th/6th/rev: Single Cone
Clutch actuation: Hydraulic clutch actuation
Whole Length: 334 mm
Shifting System:: cable shift system
Assembly Site:: Aspern; Austria
Applications: Chevrolet Sonic RS
Chevrolet Cruze
Chevrolet Sonic RS (5 Dr.) Engine
1.4L DOHC I-4 Turbo
Chevrolet Cruze Engine
1.4L DOHC I-4 Turbo


F40-6 Manual Transmission (MR6)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The F40 manual transmission (MR6) is a front wheel drive, six-speed transmission and is part of the F40 manual transmission family. It is one of the manual transmissions used in GM's small to mid-size cars. The F40 manual transmission family features a three-axis transverse layout, with fully synchronized gears and compact packaging. It features higher torque capacity with smooth-running performance.

The design features include triple-cone synchronizer on 1st and 2nd gears, double-cone synchronizers for 3re , 4th and reverse. Single-cone synchronizers for 5th and 6th.

Type: F40-6 FWD (AWD capable)
Max torque 400Nm
Torque limitations: 300Nm 1st=4,167, R=3,917
330Nm 1st=3,917, R=3,750
280Nm 1st=3,769/3,917 R=3,538/3,750
2nd gear: 400Nm (all)
4th gear: 400Nm (all)
Transmission Orientation: L (longitudinal), T( Transverse ) front wheel drive & transversal set up
Configuration 3-piece housing
No. of gears 6 + rev.
No. of shafts 3
Shift system (cable/rod) cable
Clutch actuation system (hydraulical/mechanical) hydraulic
Center distance Input/Differential F40: 197mm
Length 354mm (Epsilon1), 372mm (GMC)
Weight (dry): F40 (FWD): 54 kg; F40 (AWD): 55kg
Clutch size: 240mm and 250mm
Synchronization: 1st-2nd: 3 cone, 3rd-4th: 2 cone, 5th-6th: 1 cone, rev.:2 cone
Transmission fluid: BOT 402
Assembly site: Rüsselsheim, Germany
Applications:
Buick Regal GS
Gearsets 1st |2nd |3rd |4th |5th |6th |R
MR6 3.917 |2.040 |1.321 |0.954 |0.755 |0.623 |3.750
Final Drives
GY6 3.762
Buick Regal GS Engine
LGE-LTG-2.0L I-4 Turbo

Unique "tailset" design


The tailset design reduces the inertia required by the synchronizers to match gearset speeds during an upshift or a downshift. That reduces the demand on the synchronizers, which in turn reduces the amount of effort by the driver to shift gears. The tailset design also reduces the length of the output shaft, which is typically the source of noise in a conventional manual transmission when the powertrain is idling in neutral.

Synchronized gears


All synchronizers, including a synchronized reverse gear, use brass material for their friction surfaces – a softer, more common material that is allowed by the reduced demands on the synchronizers. Clutch actuation is through a concentric release bearing, a common method of ensuring a linear actuation, which translates to a higher-quality pedal feel for the driver.

Low-vibration shift rail design


The shift rail inside the transmission is located near the top of the case, and attaches to the shifter through a small coupling. The design allows all shift efforts to be transmitted to the transmission rather than a portion derailed into the car's body.


2012 AISIN-WARNER AY6 FIVE-SPEED MANUAL (MV5)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The Aisin AY6 (MV5) ratios allow even stepping between gears and are optimized to the performance characteristics of high performance vehicles. Premium features include a synchronized reverse gear and a lightweight case made of aluminum. Shift action and feel is light and precise, with short throws between gears.

The Aisin AY6's torque flow path, allows the gearsets to carry less torque and operate at a higher rpm compared to a conventional manual transmission, so the transmission can handle more torque than a similarly sized headset design. The countershaft of the AY6 remains a conventional design.

Type: Rear wheel drive, six-speed manual transmission
Engine range: 2.8L - 3.6L
Maximum engine torque: 370 Nm (273 lb-ft)
Maximum gearbox torque: 370 Nm (273 lb-ft)
Gear ratios: MV5
First 4.475
Second 2.577
Third: 1.683
Fourth: 1.194
Fifth 1.000
Sixth 0.752
Reverse: 3.955
Final Drive Ratio: 3.270
Maximum curb vehicle weight: 4026 lbs ( 1826 kg )
Case material: Aluminum
Center distance: 85mm
Fluid type: 75W90
Transmission weight: wet: 57.2 kg (126 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): 1.8L (1.9 qt)
Power take off: No
Applications: Chevrolet Camaro
Chevrolet Camaro (Coupe, Convertible) Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI

Unique "tailset" design


The tailset design reduces the inertia required by the synchronizers to match gearset speeds during an upshift or a downshift. That reduces the demand on the synchronizers, which in turn reduces the amount of effort by the driver to shift gears. The tailset design also reduces the length of the output shaft, which is typically the source of noise in a conventional manual transmission when the powertrain is idling in neutral.

Synchronized gears


All synchronizers, including a synchronized reverse gear, use brass material for their friction surfaces – a softer, more common material that is allowed by the reduced demands on the synchronizers. Clutch actuation is through a concentric release bearing, a common method of ensuring a linear actuation, which translates to a higher-quality pedal feel for the driver.

Low-vibration shift rail design


The shift rail inside the transmission is located near the top of the case, and attaches to the shifter through a small coupling. The design allows all shift efforts to be transmitted to the transmission rather than a portion derailed into the car's body.


2012 AISIN-WARNER AY6 FIVE-SPEED MANUAL (MV7)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The Aisin AY6 (MV7) ratios allow even stepping between gears and are optimized to the performance characteristics of high performance vehicles. Premium features include a synchronized reverse gear and a lightweight case made of aluminum. Shift action and feel is light and precise, with short throws between gears.

The Aisin AY6's torque flow path, allows the gearsets to carry less torque and operate at a higher rpm compared to a conventional manual transmission, so the transmission can handle more torque than a similarly sized headset design. The countershaft of the AY6 remains a conventional design.

Type: Rear wheel drive, six-speed manual transmission
Engine range: 3.6L
Maximum engine torque: 370 Nm (273 lb-ft)
Maximum gearbox torque: 370 Nm (273 lb-ft)
Gear ratios: MV7
First: 4.16
Second: 2.51
Third: 1.69
Fourth: 1.27
Fifth: 1.00
Sixth: 0.75
Reverse: 3.67
Final Drive Ratio: 3.42
Maximum curb vehicle weight: 4202 lbs ( 1906 kg )
Case material: Alumnium
Center distance: 85mm
Fluid type: 75W90
Transmission weight: wet: 57.2 kg (126 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): 1.8L (1.9 qt)
Power take off: No
Cadillac CTS (Sedan, Wagon) Engine
3.0L V-6 VVT DI


M32 (MZ0)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The M32 manual transmission (MZ0) is a front wheel drive, six-speed transmission and is part of the M20/32 manual transmission family. It is one of the manual transmissions used in GM's small cars. The M32 manual transmission family features a three-axis transverse layout, with fully synchronized gears and compact packaging. It features higher torque capacity with smooth-running performance.

The design features include triple-cone synchronizer on 1st and 2nd gears, double-cone synchronizers for 3rd and 4th. Single-cone synchronizers for 5th, 6th and reverse.

Type: front wheel drive, six-speed manual transmission
Configuration: Transversal, three shafts
Engine range: FAM1 1.8L - Gasoline
Maximum engine torque: 170Nm
Maximum gearbox torque: 320Nm; 1st/rev. gear 260Nm; 2nd gear 290Nm
Center distance: 197mm
Gear ratios: MZ0
First 3.818
Second 2.158
Third: 1.475
Fourth: 1.067
Fifth 0.875
Sixth 0.744
Reverse: 3.545
Final Drive Ratio: 3.94
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2,280kg (5,027 lbs.)
Case material: alumnium, 3 piece housing
Fluid type: BOT 0402
Transmission weight: dry: 46,7 Kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 1.9L (2.0 qt)
Synchronization: 1st & 2nd: Triple Cone
3rd/4th: Single Cone
5th/6th/rev: Single Cone
Clutch actuation: Hydraulic clutch actuation
Whole Length: 334 mm
Shifting System:: cable shift system
Assembly Site:: Aspern; Austria
Applications: Chevrolet Cruze
Chevrolet Cruze Engine
1.8L DOHC I-4 (LUW)
1.8L DOHC I-4 (LWE)


M32 (MZ4)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The M32 manual transmission (MZ4) is a front wheel drive, six-speed transmission and is part of the M20/32 manual transmission family. It is one of the manual transmissions used in GM's small cars. The M32 manual transmission family features a three-axis transverse layout, with fully synchronized gears and compact packaging. It features higher torque capacity with smooth-running performance.

The design features include triple-cone synchronizer on 1st and 2nd gears, double-cone synchronizers for 3rd and 4th. Single-cone synchronizers for 5th, 6th and reverse.

Type: front wheel drive, six-speed manual transmission
Configuration: Transversal, three shafts
Engine range: FAM0 1.4L-Turbo - Gasoline
Maximum engine torque: 200Nm
Maximum gearbox torque: 320Nm; 1st/rev. gear 260Nm; 2nd gear 290Nm
Center distance: 197mm
Gear ratios: MZ4
First 3.820
Second 2.050
Third: 1.300
Fourth: 0.960
Fifth 0.740
Sixth 0.610
Reverse: 3.550
Final Drive Ratio: 3.65
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2,280kg (5,027 lbs.)
Case material: alumnium, 3 piece housing
Fluid type: BOT 0303-mod (low viscosity oil)
Transmission weight: dry: 46,7 Kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 1.9L (2.0 qt)
Synchronization: 1st & 2nd: Triple Cone
3rd/4th: Single Cone
5th/6th/rev: Single Cone
Clutch actuation: Hydraulic clutch actuation
Whole Length: 334 mm
Shifting System:: cable shift system
Assembly Site:: Aspern; Austria
Applications: Chevrolet Sonic
Chevrolet Sonic (5 Dr.) Engine
1.4L DOHC I-4 Turbo
Chevrolet Sonic (4 Dr.) Engine
1.4L DOHC I-4 Turbo

On-Axis Design


Instead of "folding" the transmission around the end of a transversely mounted engine, which has been one of the dominant GM transaxle design conventions, the 6T70/6T75 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout can translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Advanced Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow perfect timing between shifts, but also take up more space and add more components to the transmission. However, due to the electronic controls, the clutch-to-clutch concept of the 6T70/6T75 delivers the same accurate shift timing.

Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with a precise clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, however, is a freewheeling action, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Compact Dimensions


State-of-the-art dimensions enable spacious packaging and enhance potential safety design opportunities. In addition, styling opportunities for lower hood lines are also enabled by the compact dimensions of the 6T70 and 6T75.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The 246 mm torque converter in the 6T70/6T75 uses a 258-mm single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help dampen engine vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

Vane-Type Variable-Capacity Pump


A chain-driven, off-axis fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for the shift events and lubrication. The pump features vanes that can vary its output, optimizing the amount of energy the pump needs to operate. Internal tests have demonstrated improved powertrain efficiency with the variable-capacity pump.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the transmissions' helical gears are ground and honed to ensure exact dimensions and tolerances. With closer tolerances, the gears are less prone to characteristic whining or humming, and the transmissions operate with exceptional quietness.

Unique Input Shaft Bushings


The input shaft requires no machining for grooves to contain fluid seals, which allows the shaft to retain maximum strength for its size and minimize cost.



Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6T70 (MH2, MH4, M7W and M7U) and 6T75 (M7X and M7V) transmissions are part of GM's family of technically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics designed to optimize efficiency while delivering exceptional smoothness and an excellent feeling of performance. Because of the wide ratio spread, first gear is a very high ratio, which provides brisk acceleration from a stop. Sixth, however, is an overdrive ratio, which keeps the engine revolutions as low as possible for highway cruising, reducing engine friction losses and improving fuel economy.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch.
Engine range: 3.0L - 3.6L
Maximum engine torque: 280 lb-ft (380 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 450Nm 1st gear / 515 Nm 2nd-6th gears
Gear ratios: M7W
First: 4.484
Second: 2.872
Third: 1.842
Fourth: 1.414
Fifth: 1.000
Sixth: 0.742
Reverse: 2.882
Final Drive Ratio: 2.77 ( Effective Final Drive Ratio ), 3.39 for SRX
Maximum input speed: Rev 5000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 6500 rpm
5-6 5798 rpm
Maximum validated gross combined weight: 2619 kg (5775 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M, (DSC+/-) & L (MU/MD)
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: 6 Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: 6 Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Flow Solenoid
Converter size: 246mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI; 9986153; Spec:GMN10060
Transmission weight: wet: 102.0 - 102.4 kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 9.0L (9.5 qt)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Transfer design: three-axis design
Assembly sites: Warren, Mich.; Ramos Arizpe, Mexico
Applications: Buick Lacrosse
Buick Regal
Cadillax XTS
Cadillac SRX
Chevrolet Equinox
Chevrolet Impala
Chevrolet Malibu
GMC Terrain
Cadillac SRX Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Cadillac XTS Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Chevrolet Equinox Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Chevrolet Malibu
LGE-LTG-2.0L I-4 Turbo
Chevrolet Impala
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
GMC Terrain Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Buick Lacrosse Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Buick Regal, Regal GS Engine
LGE-LTG-2.0L I-4 Turbo

On-Axis Design


Instead of "folding" the transmission around the end of a transversely mounted engine, which has been one of the dominant GM transaxle design conventions, the 6T70/6T75 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout can translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Advanced Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow perfect timing between shifts, but also take up more space and add more components to the transmission. However, due to the electronic controls, the clutch-to-clutch concept of the 6T70/6T75 delivers the same accurate shift timing.

Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with a precise clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, however, is a freewheeling action, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Compact Dimensions


State-of-the-art dimensions enable spacious packaging and enhance potential safety design opportunities. In addition, styling opportunities for lower hood lines are also enabled by the compact dimensions of the 6T70 and 6T75.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The 246 mm torque converter in the 6T70/6T75 uses a 258-mm single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help dampen engine vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

Vane-Type Variable-Capacity Pump


A chain-driven, off-axis fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for the shift events and lubrication. The pump features vanes that can vary its output, optimizing the amount of energy the pump needs to operate. Internal tests have demonstrated improved powertrain efficiency with the variable-capacity pump.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the transmissions' helical gears are ground and honed to ensure exact dimensions and tolerances. With closer tolerances, the gears are less prone to characteristic whining or humming, and the transmissions operate with exceptional quietness.

Unique Input Shaft Bushings


The input shaft requires no machining for grooves to contain fluid seals, which allows the shaft to retain maximum strength for its size and minimize cost.



Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6T70 (MH2, MH4, M7W and M7U) and 6T75 (M7X and M7V) transmissions are part of GM's family of technically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics designed to optimize efficiency while delivering exceptional smoothness and an excellent feeling of performance. Because of the wide ratio spread, first gear is a very high ratio, which provides brisk acceleration from a stop. Sixth, however, is an overdrive ratio, which keeps the engine revolutions as low as possible for highway cruising, reducing engine friction losses and improving fuel economy.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch. All Wheel Drive model.
Engine range: 2.0L - 3.6L
Maximum engine torque: 280 lb-ft (380 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 450Nm 1st gear / 515 Nm 2nd-6th gears
Gear ratios: M7U
First: 4.484
Second: 2.872
Third: 1.842
Fourth: 1.414
Fifth: 1.000
Sixth: 0.742
Reverse: 2.882
Effective Final Drive Ratio: 2.77, (3.39 on SRX and Equinox)
Maximum input speed: Rev 5000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 6500 rpm
5-6 5798 rpm
Maximum validated gross combined weight: 2619 kg (5775 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M, (DSC+/-) & L (MU/MD)
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: 6 Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: 6 Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Flow Solenoid
Converter size: 246mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI; 9986153; Spec:GMN10060
Transmission weight: wet: 102.0 - 102.4 kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 9.0L (9.5 qt)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Transfer design: three-axis design
Assembly sites: Warren, Mich.; Ramos, Mexico
Applications: Buick Lacrosse
Buick Regal
Cadillac XTS
Cadillac SRX
Chevrolet Equinox
GMC Terrain
Buick Lacrosse Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Buick Regal, Regal GS Engine
LGE-LTG-2.0L I-4 Trubo
Cadillac SRX Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Cadillac XTS Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Chevrolet Equinox Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
GMC Terrain Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI

On-Axis Design


Instead of "folding" the transmission around the end of a transversely mounted engine, which has been one of the dominant GM transaxle design conventions, the 6T70/6T75 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout can translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Advanced Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow perfect timing between shifts, but also take up more space and add more components to the transmission. However, due to the electronic controls, the clutch-to-clutch concept of the 6T70/6T75 delivers the same accurate shift timing.

Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with a precise clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, however, is a freewheeling action, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Compact Dimensions


State-of-the-art dimensions enable spacious packaging and enhance potential safety design opportunities. In addition, styling opportunities for lower hood lines are also enabled by the compact dimensions of the 6T70 and 6T75.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The 246 mm torque converter in the 6T70/6T75 uses a 258-mm single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help dampen engine vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

Vane-Type Variable-Capacity Pump


A chain-driven, off-axis fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for the shift events and lubrication. The pump features vanes that can vary its output, optimizing the amount of energy the pump needs to operate. Internal tests have demonstrated improved powertrain efficiency with the variable-capacity pump.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the transmissions' helical gears are ground and honed to ensure exact dimensions and tolerances. With closer tolerances, the gears are less prone to characteristic whining or humming, and the transmissions operate with exceptional quietness.

Unique Input Shaft Bushings


The input shaft requires no machining for grooves to contain fluid seals, which allows the shaft to retain maximum strength for its size and minimize cost.



Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6T70 (MH2, MH4, M7W and M7U) and 6T75 (M7X and M7V) transmissions are part of GM's family of technically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics designed to optimize efficiency while delivering exceptional smoothness and an excellent feeling of performance. Because of the wide ratio spread, first gear is a very high ratio, which provides brisk acceleration from a stop. Sixth, however, is an overdrive ratio, which keeps the engine revolutions as low as possible for highway cruising, reducing engine friction losses and improving fuel economy.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive (FWD), electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch. 2 Wheel Drive model.
Engine range: 3.6L
Maximum engine torque: 301 lb-ft (406 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 380 lb-ft (515Nm) all gears
Gear ratios: M7V
First: 4.484
Second: 2.872
Third: 1.842
Fourth: 1.414
Fifth: 1.000
Sixth: 0.742
Reverse: 2.882
Final Drive Ratio: 3.160
Maximum input speed: Rev 5000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 6500 rpm
5-6 5798 rpm
Maximum validated gross combined weight: 2930 kg (6460 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M, (DSC+/-) & L (MU/MD)
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: 6 Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: 6 Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Flow Solenoid
Converter size: 246mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI; 9986153; Spec:GMN10060
Transmission weight: wet: 104.4 - 104.7 kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 9.0L (9.5 qt)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Transfer design: three-axis design
Assembly sites: Warren, Michigan
Applications: GMC Acadia
Buick Enclave
Chevrolet Traverse
Cadillax XTS Professional
Cadillax XTS
Buick Enclave Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Cadillac XTS Professional Vehicle Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Chevrolet Traverse Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
GMC Acadia Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI

On-Axis Design


Instead of "folding" the transmission around the end of a transversely mounted engine, which has been one of the dominant GM transaxle design conventions, the 6T70/6T75 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout can translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Advanced Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow perfect timing between shifts, but also take up more space and add more components to the transmission. However, due to the electronic controls, the clutch-to-clutch concept of the 6T70/6T75 delivers the same accurate shift timing.

Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with a precise clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, however, is a freewheeling action, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Compact Dimensions


State-of-the-art dimensions enable spacious packaging and enhance potential safety design opportunities. In addition, styling opportunities for lower hood lines are also enabled by the compact dimensions of the 6T70 and 6T75.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The 246 mm torque converter in the 6T70/6T75 uses a 258-mm single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help dampen engine vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

Vane-Type Variable-Capacity Pump


A chain-driven, off-axis fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for the shift events and lubrication. The pump features vanes that can vary its output, optimizing the amount of energy the pump needs to operate. Internal tests have demonstrated improved powertrain efficiency with the variable-capacity pump.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the transmissions' helical gears are ground and honed to ensure exact dimensions and tolerances. With closer tolerances, the gears are less prone to characteristic whining or humming, and the transmissions operate with exceptional quietness.

Unique Input Shaft Bushings


The input shaft requires no machining for grooves to contain fluid seals, which allows the shaft to retain maximum strength for its size and minimize cost.



Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6T70 (MH2, MH4, M7W and M7U) and 6T75 (M7X and M7V) transmissions are part of GM's family of technically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics designed to optimize efficiency while delivering exceptional smoothness and an excellent feeling of performance. Because of the wide ratio spread, first gear is a very high ratio, which provides brisk acceleration from a stop. Sixth, however, is an overdrive ratio, which keeps the engine revolutions as low as possible for highway cruising, reducing engine friction losses and improving fuel economy.

Type: Six speed all-wheel-drive (AWD), electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch. All Wheel Drive model
Engine range: 3.6L
Maximum engine torque: 301 lb-ft (407 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 380 lb-ft (515Nm) all gears
Gear ratios: M7X
First: 4.484
Second: 2.872
Third: 1.842
Fourth: 1.414
Fifth: 1.000
Sixth: 0.742
Reverse: 2.882
Final Drive Ratio: 3.16
Maximum input speed: Rev 5000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 6500 rpm
5-6 5798 rpm
Maximum validated gross combined weight: 2930 kg (6460 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M, (DSC+/-) & L (MU/MD)
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: 6 Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: 6 Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Flow Solenoid
Converter size: 246mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI; 9986153; Spec:GMN10060
Transmission weight: wet: 104.4 - 104.7 kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 9.0L (9.5 qt)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Transfer design: three-axis design
Assembly sites: Warren, Michigan
Applications: GMC Acadia
Buick Enclave
Chevrolet Traverse
Buick Enclave Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
Chevrolet Traverse Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI
GMC Acadia Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI

Double-and Triple-Cone Synchronizers


Design features of the TR3160 include a combination of double-cone and triple-cone carbon synchronizers on all gears. Synchronizers act like clutches to speed up or slow down a gear that is being shifted. Double-cone synchronizers have two friction surfaces to effect this gear acceleration, and triple-cone synchronizers have three friction surfaces. The greater the friction surface, the easier the transmission is to shift.

Carbon Synchronizer Material


The use of carbon material on in all synchronizer positions improves the durability of the synchronizer. Carbon also protects the synchronizer in high energy events such as high RPM aggressive shifting. Carbon synchronizers improve the quality, reliability and durability of the synchronizer system.

Second Gear Synchronizer Design with Advanced and Asymmetric Teeth


Utilizing advanced and asymmetric teeth on the second gear synchronizer system improves the shifting action of the transmission during cold temperatures. This is accomplished by the advanced and asymmetric teeth contacting the second gear dog ring in less distance and with increased stopping power. The shift feel is significantly improved in cold weather. This design also improves the warm shifting comfort.

Internal Multi-Rail Shift System


The TR3160’s internal multi-rail shift system places the shifter directly on the transmission, enabling very short, precise and positive-feeling gear changes. There are no cables connecting the shifter to the transmission, which could cause a “rubbery,” less-precise feel.


TREMEC TR3160 SIX-SPEED MANUAL (M3L)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The Tremec TR3160 is a new six-speed manual transmission used exclusively in the Cadillac ATS sport sedan.

Refinement is the hallmark of the TR3160, as shift quality and noise levels are exceptional to support the performance of the compact luxury sedan. The shifting experience that is swift, precise, quiet and effortless, thanks to several shift-quality-related features:

  • High-precision guide plate
  • Patented interlock system
  • Anti-friction roller ball detents
  • Low-friction linear shift rail bearings
Additional features include the use of low-friction oil, low-friction seals and bearings, as well as large, high-capacity synchronizers that contribute to low shift efforts and shifter travel. All of the gears are hard-finished, which contributes to transmission’s refined feel and low noise. The case of the TR3160 is made of lightweight aluminum, which contributes to the ATS’s low curb weight.


Type: Rear wheel drive, six-speed manual overdrive transmission
Engine range: <450Nm Gasoline
Maximum engine torque: 450Nm
Maximum gearbox torque: 450Nm
Gear ratios: M3L
First 4.124
Second 2.622
Third: 1.809
Fourth: 1.304
Fifth 1.000
Sixth 0.798
Reverse: 3.746
Final Drive Ratio: 3.270
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2130Kg
Case material: Aluminum
Center distance: 81mm
Fluid type: Dex VI
Transmission weight: 50Kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 2.8L
Power take off: N/A
Applications: Cadillac ATS
Cadillac ATS Sedan Engine
LGE-LTG 2.0L 1-4 Turbo

Reverse gear mis-shift prevention


It is impossible to inadvertently shift from fifth gear to when downshifting. Reverse is engaged only from the neutral position.

Cable shift mechanism


Precise gear selection and smooth shifting is enabled with the robust cable-shift mechanism, which also provide quick gear changes with minimal effort.

Woven carbon fiber synchronizer material


All the synchronizer positions are covered in woven carbon fiber material for greater durability and shift quality. The material is high wear resistant, which helps improve the transmission shift quality.


Y4M HD FIVE-SPEED MANUAL TRANSMISSION (MX2)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The Y4M HD (MX2) five-speed manual is a compact and robust transmission for front wheel drive vehicles. It has a one-piece, aluminum housing and integrates the differential within the compact and lightweight housing. All of the forward gears and final drive in the differential are hard-machined for durability.

The Y4M HD uses conventional gear oil and no maintenance is required under normal operating conditions. Fluid changes are recommended for severe duty. A hydraulic clutch eliminates adjustments throughout the lifespan of the transmission

Type: Front wheel drive, 5 speed with integrated differential
Configuration: 5 forward / 1 backward
Engine range: B10D/B12D
Maximum engine torque: 110.8Nm @ 4200 with RON91
Maximum gearbox torque: 120Nm
Distance from Input Shaft to Counter Shaft 60mm
Distance from Counter Shaft to Differential Assembly. 112mm
Distance from Input Shaft to Differential Assembly 172mm
Gear ratios: MX2
First 3.539
Second 2.050
Third: 1.323
Fourth: 0.946
Fifth 0.756
Reverse: 3.385
Final Drive Ratio: 4.21
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 1,533 Kg
Case material: Aluminum alloy
Fluid type: SAE 75W85W
Transmission weight: dry: 27.7 Kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 2.1 liter
Synchronization: 1st to 4th : Carbon coated single cone
5th : Brass single cone
Reverse brake system
Clutch actuation: Hydraulic system
Whole Length: 404.2 mm
Shifting System:: Floor mounted cable control system
Assembly Site:: Changwon Plant, Korea
Applications: Chevrolet Spark
Chevrolet Spark Engine
1.2L 1-4 Fam B

Long-travel damper springs


Three long-travel damper springs in the torque converter contribute to optimal fuel economy, as well as greater shift quality and lower vibration.

Neutral idle function


By disengaging the lock-up clutch when the vehicle is stationary and the shift lever is in the D position, the transmission effectively changes to neutral, reducing torque converter drag losses for reduced engine load that contributes to a smoother feel and enhanced fuel economy.

Shift "learning" control


The transmission control module performs gear-shift control learning and garage-shift control learning to provide smoother engagement when performing a garage shift, as well as smoother engagement when shifting while driving.

Lock-up control


Based on output speed signals (SP), signals from the ECM (engine speed and throttle opening amount) and the vehicle speed, the lock up control solenoid assembly is linearly controlled to perform lock up control smoothly. In addition, the slip rate of the lock-up clutch is detected by monitoring input speed signals, and slip control is performed.


AISIN AW 80-40LE GEN2, FOUR-SPEED AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION (MNG)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The Aisin AW 80-40LE (MNG) is a new, electronically controlled four-speed automatic transmission used in the Chevrolet Spark.

The AW 80-40LE's Ravignaux gear set - also known as a Le Pelletier arrangement – is a double-planetary design derived from three gear pairs: the ring-planet, planet-planet and sun-planet. There are two sun gear wheels, a large sun and a small sun, and a single carrier gear with two independent planetary gear wheels connected to it, an inner planet and an outer planet. This arrangement is very compact and is packaged in a lightweight die-cast aluminum housing.

The Y4M HD uses conventional gear oil and no maintenance is required under normal operating conditions. Fluid changes are recommended for severe duty. A hydraulic clutch eliminates adjustments throughout the lifespan of the transmission.

Type: Four speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch.
Engine range: 1249cc
Maximum engine torque: 110.5Nm
Maximum gearbox torque: 130Nm
Gear ratios: MNG
First 2.875
Second 1.568
Third: 1
Fourth: 0.697
Reverse: 2.3
Final Drive Ratio: 4.145
Maximum input speed: 6800rpm
Shifter Positions: 6 positions (PRNDIL)
Case material: Aluminum
Converter size: Φ190
Fluid type: AW-1
Oil Level Adjustment: Over flow
Transmission weight Wet: 52kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 4.7L
Assembly Sites: Vehicle Ass.: Changwon in KOREA
AT Ass. : Aisin AW in Japan
Chevrolet Spark Engine
1.2L 1-4 FamA/B

6T40/6T45 Differences


To enable greater torque capacity, the 6T45 features a 1.25-inch-wide output chain, versus a 1-inch-wide chain in the 6T40. The input gear set of the 6T45 uses five pinion gears, versus four pinions for the 6T40. The case of the 6T45 is slightly larger to accommodate the larger chain system and includes enhanced case ribbing for additional strength.

On-Axis Design


The 6T40/6T45 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow mechanical control between shifts, but also take up more space and add components to the transmission. The 6T40/6T45 features "clutch-to-clutch" controls and advanced electronics to deliver precise shift timing and great driveability. Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, uses a freewheeling mechanisim, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely upon release. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The torque converters in the 6T40 (205 mm) and 6T45 (236 mm) use a single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narro